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Why cybersecurity must be baked into every business decision

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Vodafone Ireland’s Edel Briody talks about the importance of cyber-resilience and the importance of a strong security strategy.

Working to ensure business resilience has never been more important. In the wake of the HSE cyberattack, which has shown us just how much devastation cybercriminals can cause, it’s vital for every organisation to take cybersecurity seriously and to protect themselves against external threats and internal complacence.

Moreover, the Covid-19 pandemic has caused an accelerated move to online and digital services in work, education, health, retail and more. The more we do online, the more we must prioritise cybersecurity. In fact, PwC’s Global Digital Trust Insights Survey 2021, which surveyed more than 3,000 global executives, found 96pc of their organisations had evolved their cybersecurity strategy due to the pandemic.

Companies of all sizes need to ensure that they not only have the appropriate and up-to-date cybersecurity technology in place, but also that cybersecure thinking and behaviour is part of the DNA of their organisations.

This is no longer an optional add-on or a siloed activity. Half of the executives surveyed by PwC for that recent report said cybersecurity and privacy will be baked into every single business decision or plan in their company.

While most larger organisations have extensive security controls and infrastructure in place, some smaller firms do not and they are leaving themselves open and vulnerable to attack. Regardless of the size of the organisation, however, it’s crucial to remember that strong cybersecurity has two critical components.

The first of those is security technology, infrastructure and controls, and those should be strong and up to date no matter what. More and more organisations are ensuring this is the case. Accenture’s State of Cybersecurity Report 2020 found that 82pc of leaders were spending more than a fifth of their IT budgets on advanced security, up from 41pc three years earlier.

The power of education

Companies can fixate on technological fixes without focusing on the most significant line of defence. However, the second and arguably most important element of any cybersecurity strategy is instilling a security culture throughout every aspect of the organisation and influencing and supporting the appropriate human behaviour needed to combat threats.

Organisations need to move away from having security training as a box-ticking exercise or doing training because they know they should be. A high security culture must underpin the company culture.

This is not a once-off activity, a strong security culture will change employee attitudes. This means moving beyond tactical and recognising that effective security requires a long-term approach, focusing more on the awareness and communications, bringing the policies to life so to speak. It means understanding the best communication channels to promote a sense of belonging and offer support to employees to raise security incidents or issues is really important.

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It’s vital, for example, to emphasise and re-emphasise the importance of even the simplest, most basic behaviours, such as never sharing your password or being careful not to discuss confidential information on calls in open-plan offices. It’s also worthwhile to underline that the information people share on social media is absolute gold for cybercriminals. They can obtain extremely valuable information there.

Early detection of significant new threats often arises because someone says, “This isn’t right, this doesn’t feel right, maybe we should get this checked out before we click on it”. Encourage everyone in your organisation to report anything remotely suspicious to the IT department and ensure you run simulated attacks to understand and analyse the response within the organisation. Likewise, limit admin rights so employees can only download approved apps and software.

Our analysis, particularly of the FluBot malware scam that has been circulating to Android phones across Europe, shows that hackers have changed tack in recent times. As much as organisations and companies try to bolster their defences, the hackers are trying to exploit any potential loopholes arising from human behaviour.

They study the human perspective, because they are trying to make sure their messaging is as impactful as possible, so they use masking and spoofing behaviours to make their messages seem as though they are coming from the Gardaí or the Department of Social Protection.

The most insidious phishing threat is often not one involving a huge volume of phishing emails. It’s where the hackers turn down the dial and try more low-key approaches that could easily catch people out.

One threat to warn staff about, for example, is spear phishing. This might occur when a third party’s technology has been compromised. When an employee receives an email from the third party, it seems legitimate and trustworthy, but it is what is being asked of the employee that should raise the alarm. For example, they might be asked to change the bank account to which a payment is being made. Everyone in an organisation should be aware of these red flags.

To fight cybercrime, we need a holistic approach, spanning industry, individuals and government. Ireland is already at the vanguard of this and works with industry to understand threats and where security improvements can be made, but it’s vital that national and European policy and regulations are clear to everyone in every business so that we can have strong and effective digital workplace policies.

By Edel Briody

Edel Briody is the head of corporate security, risk and compliance at Vodafone Ireland.

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AI should be recognized as inventors in patent law • The Register

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In-brief Governments around the world should pass intellectual property laws that grant rights to AI systems, two academics at the University of New South Wales in Australia argued.

Alexandra George, and Toby Walsh, professors of law and AI, respectively, believe failing to recognize machines as inventors could have long-lasting impacts on economies and societies. 

“If courts and governments decide that AI-made inventions cannot be patented, the implications could be huge,” they wrote in a comment article published in Nature. “Funders and businesses would be less incentivized to pursue useful research using AI inventors when a return on their investment could be limited. Society could miss out on the development of worthwhile and life-saving inventions.”

Today’s laws pretty much only recognize humans as inventors with IP rights protecting them from patent infringement. Attempts to overturn the human-centric laws have failed. Stephen Thaler, a developer who insists AI invented his company’s products, has sued trademark offices in multiple countries, including the US and UK to no avail.

George and Walsh are siding with Thaler’s position. “Creating bespoke law and an international treaty will not be easy, but not creating them will be worse. AI is changing the way that science is done and inventions are made. We need fit-for-purpose IP law to ensure it serves the public good,” they wrote.

Dutch police generate deepfake of dead teenager in criminal case

A video clip with the face of a 13-year-old boy, who was shot dead outside a metro station in the Netherlands, swapped onto a body using AI technology was released by police.

Sedar Soares died in 2003. Officers have not managed to solve the case, and with Soares’ family’s permission, they have generated a deepfake of his image on a kid playing football in a field presumably to help jog anyone’s memory. The cops have reportedly received dozens of potential leads since, according to The Guardian. 

It’s the first time AI-generated images have been used to try and solve a criminal case, it seems. “We haven’t yet checked if these leads are usable,” said Lillian van Duijvenbode, a Rotterdam police spokesperson. 

You can watch the video here.

AI task force advises Congress to fund national computing infrastructure

America’s National Artificial Intelligence Research Resource (NAIRR) urged Congress to launch a “shared research cyberinfrastructure” to better provide academics with hardware and data resources for developing machine-learning tech.

The playing field of AI research is unequal. State-of-the-art models are often packed with billions of parameters; developers need access to lots of computer chips to train them. It’s why research at private companies seems to dominate, while academics at universities lag behind.

“We must ensure that everyone throughout the Nation has the ability to pursue cutting-edge AI research,” the NAIRR wrote in a report. “This growing resource divide has the potential to adversely skew our AI research ecosystem, and, in the process, threaten our nation’s ability to cultivate an AI research community and workforce that reflect America’s rich diversity — and harness AI in a manner that serves all Americans.”

If AI progress is driven by private companies, it could mean other types of research areas are left out and underdeveloped. “Growing and diversifying approaches to and applications of AI and opening up opportunities for progress across all scientific fields and disciplines, including in critical areas such as AI auditing, testing and evaluation, trustworthy AI, bias mitigation, and AI safety,” the task force argued. 

You can read the full report here [PDF].

Meta offers musculoskeletal research tech

Researchers at Meta AI released Myosuite, a set of musculoskeletal models and tasks to simulate biomechanical movement of limbs for a whole range of applications.

“The more intelligent an organism is, the more complex the motor behavior it can exhibit,” they said in a blog post. “So an important question to consider, then, is — what enables such complex decision-making and the motor control to execute those decisions? To explore this question, we’ve developed MyoSuite.”

Myosuite was built in collaboration with researchers at the University of Twente in the Netherlands, and aims to arm developers studying prosthetics and could help rehabilitate patients. There’s another potential useful application for Meta, however: building more realistic avatars that can move more naturally in the metaverse.

The models only simulate the movements of arms and hands so far. Tasks include using machine learning to simulate the manipulation of die or rotation of two balls. The application of Myosuite in Meta’s metaverse is a little ironic given that there’s no touching allowed there along with restrictions on hands to deter harassment. ®

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A day in the life of a metaverse specialist

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Unity’s Antonia Forster discusses her work using AR, VR and everything in between, and why ignoring imposter syndrome is particularly important in the world of emerging technology.

We’ve started hearing a lot about the metaverse and what it means for the future, including how it might affect recruitment and the working world.

But what is it like to actually work within this space? Antonia Forster is an extended reality (XR) technical specialist at video game software development company Unity Technologies, with several years of experience developing XR applications.

Future Human

In her role at Unity, she works across a variety of industries, from automotive to architecture, creating demos and delivering talks using XR, which encapsulates AR, VR and everything in between.

‘I watch a lot more YouTube tutorials than you might expect’
– ANTONIA FORSTER

If there is such a thing, can you describe a typical day in the job?

It’s challenging to describe a typical day because they vary so much!  I work completely remotely with flexible hours. Most of my team are based in the US while I’m in the UK. In order to manage the time difference, I usually start work around 11am and work until 7pm.

Most of my day is spent on developing content, whether that’s using Unity and C# to code a technical demo, creating video content to help onboard new starters with Unity’s tools, or writing a script for a webinar.

Before the pandemic, a role like mine would involve lots of travel and speaking at conferences. But unfortunately, that’s a little more challenging now.

We use a whole range of tools from organisational ones like Asana to manage our projects, to Slack and Google Docs to coordinate with each other, to Unity’s own technical tools to create content.

All of Unity’s XR tools fall under my remit, so I might be creating VR content one day and creating an AR mobile app the next. I also use Unity and C# to create my own projects outside of work. For example, I co-created the world’s first LGBTQ+ virtual reality museum, which has been officially selected for Tribeca Film Festival in June 2022 – during Pride!

What types of project do you work on?

At Unity, my role is to create content that helps people understand our tools and get excited about all the different things it enables them to do. For example, for one project I visited a real construction site and used one of Unity’s tools (VisualLive) to see the virtual model of the building model overlaid on top of the real physical construction.

This makes it very easy to see the difference between the plan and the actual reality, which is very important to avoid clashes and costly mistakes. For another project, I used VR and hand-tracking to demonstrate how someone could showcase a product (say, a car) inside a VR showroom and then interact with it using hand tracking and full-body tracking.

What skills do you use on a daily basis?

The most relevant skill for my role is the ability to break down a larger problem into small steps and then solving each step. That’s really all programming is! That and knowing the right terms to Google to find the solution and enough understanding to implement the solution, or continuing to search if you don’t understand that solution or it is not appropriate for your problem.

Despite my title, I don’t think of myself as highly ‘technical’. I’m an entirely self-taught software developer, and I’m a visual learner, so I watch a lot more YouTube tutorials than you might expect!

Another crucial skill is persistence because VR and AR are emerging and fast-moving technologies that are constantly changing. If I follow a tutorial or try a solution and it doesn’t work, I used to grapple with the feeling that maybe I’m not good enough.

In reality, this technology changes so often that if a tutorial is six months old, it might be out of date. Learning to be resilient and persistent and to ignore my feelings of imposter syndrome was the most important thing I’ve learned on my career journey. Your feelings are not facts, and imposter syndrome is extremely common in this industry.

What are the hardest parts of your working day?

One of the most difficult challenges of my working day is the isolation. I work remotely and many of my team are on a different time zone, so we’re not always able to chat. To overcome that, I prioritise social engagements outside of work.

When I’m extremely busy with my own projects – like the LGBTQ+ VR museum – I go to co-working spaces so that I can at least be around other people during working hours.

I also struggle with time blindness. I have ADHD and working remotely means that it’s easy to get absorbed in a task and forget to take breaks. I set alarms to snap myself out of my ‘trance’ at certain times, like lunchtime. I have to admit though, it doesn’t always work!

Do you have any productivity tips that help you through the day?

My main tip for productivity is to find what works for you, not what works for other people, or what others think should work for you.

For example, I am a night owl. So, starting my day a little later and working into the night, works well for me. It also means I can sync with my team in the US. I don’t find time to play video games, piano or meet up with my friends in the evening, so instead I arrange those things for the morning, which helps me persuade myself to get out of bed!

In the same way, when I was learning to code, people gave me advice like: ‘Break things and fix it, to see how it works’. But that produced a lot of anxiety for me and didn’t work well.

Instead, I learned with my own methods like writing songs, drawing cartoons and even physically printing and gluing code snippets into a notebook and writing the English translation underneath. Code after all, is a language, so I treated it the same way. Find what works for you, even if it’s not conventional!

How has this role changed as this sector has grown and evolved?

I began this role in 2020 and typically – before the pandemic – my job would have been described as a ‘technical evangelism’, which involves a lot of public speaking and travel to conferences.

Of course, that wasn’t really possible, so my role has evolved into creating content of different types – webinars online, videos, onboarding tutorials and technical demos for marketing and sales enablement.

While I really enjoy public speaking, the lack of travel has given me time to get deeply familiar with Unity’s XR tooling and sharpen my technical expertise. This technology is always changing so it’s really important to constantly learn and grow. Luckily, I have an insatiable curiosity and appetite for knowledge. I think all engineers do!

What do you enjoy most about the job?

I have two favourite things about this job. First, the autonomy. Since I have a deep understanding of the tools and our users/audience, I’m trusted to design and propose my own solutions that best meet the user needs.

Secondly, the technology itself. Being able to create VR or AR content is like sorcery! I can conjure anything from nothing. I can create entire worlds that I can step into based only on my imagination. And so can anybody that learns this skill – and it’s easier than you think! That has never stopped being magical and exciting to me, and I don’t think it ever will.

10 things you need to know direct to your inbox every weekday. Sign up for the Daily Brief, Silicon Republic’s digest of essential sci-tech news.

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Will this fruit-picking robot transform agriculture? | Artificial intelligence (AI)

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Robots can do a lot. They build cars in factories. They sort goods in Amazon warehouses. Robotic dogs can, allegedly and a little creepily, make us safer by patrolling our streets. But there are some things robots still cannot do – things that sound quite basic in comparison. Like picking an apple from a tree.

“It’s a simple thing” for humans, says robotics researcher Joe Davidson. “You and I, we could close our eyes, reach into the tree. We could feel around, touch it, and say ‘hey, that’s an apple and the stem’s up here’. Pull, twist. We could do all that without even looking.”

Creating a robotic implement that can simply pick an apple and drop it into a bin without damaging it is a multimillion-dollar effort that has been decades in the making. Teams around the world have tried various approaches. Some have developed vacuum systems to suck fruit off trees. Davidson and his colleagues turned to the human hand for inspiration. They began their efforts by observing professional fruit pickers, and are now working to replicate their skilled movements with robotic fingers.

Their work could help to transform agriculture, turning fruit-picking – a backbreaking, time-consuming human task – into one that’s speedy and easier on farm workers.

These efforts have gained impetus recently as researchers point to the worsening conditions for farm workers amid the climate crisis, including extreme heat and wildfire smoke, and also a shortage of workers in the wake of the pandemic. The technology could lead to better working conditions and worker safety. But that outcome depends on how robots are deployed in fields, farm workers’ organizations say.

While robotic tools for agriculture have made big strides in recent years, those AI-based tools are mostly used for weeding, monitoring soil moisture and other field conditions, or for planting soybeans using remote-controlled tractors. “But when it actually comes to doing physical work like pruning trees or picking fruit, that’s still the realm of people today,” Davidson says.

Teaching robots to perform these tasks requires modernized versions of both the orchard and the apple.

Traditional orchards, with irregularly shaped trees and giant canopies, are too much of a challenge for algorithms to parse and process. Shifting sunbeams, fog and clouds add to computer vision’s challenges. Tangled, tall old trees are problematic even to human pickers, who end up spending much of their time hauling and positioning ladders, not picking fruit.

Now, many growers have transitioned to orchards where trees grow flat against trellises, their trunks and branches at right angles to create a “wall of fruit”, says Scott Jacky, owner of Red Roof Consulting, a group that helps optimize farm technologies. The thinner canopy also lets more sunlight in, encouraging fruits to form.

Since the 1990s, breeders have been working to develop apple varieties more resistant to sunburn – a side-effect of those sparser canopies – and less prone to bruising when dropped into bins. All these changes to the trees and the apples themselves make the job easier for robots (and for humans).

In orchards with trellised trees, human fruit pickers can cruise through rows of trees in pairs on slowly rolling platforms. One person crouches to reach low-hanging fruit, the other reaches for the higher branches. Professionals working this way take about two seconds to pick one apple.

The robot in Davidson’s lab, which is essentially a giant arm mounted on a rolling platform, takes about five seconds to make its moves. At the click of a key, the robotic arm reaches up for the fruit – actually a plastic apple made for testing purposes – with its three-fingered palm. Its fingers are covered in cushiony silicone “skin”, which conceals individual motors wired to tendons that drive its fingers. Thirty sensors under each fingertip track the pressure, speed, angle and other aspects of its grasp to help the robot complete its task.

Another keystroke and the fingers tighten, then twist, and the apple – successfully picked – rests in the robot’s palm.

The fruit-picking robot has picked an apple successfully about half of the 500 or so times it has tried so far. Still, the robotic arm has cracked some problems that posed hurdles to automation. For instance, it can avoid damaging both fruit and tree limbs in the harvesting process. Rapid improvements in computing make Davidson and others hopeful the robots will work on farms within the next five to 10 years.

The US government is placing significant bets on this technology. Last year alone, federal funding agencies granted $20m to support the AgAID institute, a new group that supports several researchers, including Davidson, in efforts to develop artificial intelligence-backed tools for agriculture.

Proponents of harvest automation say there will still be jobs for people, such as training and operating the robots. “There are going to be plenty of tasks where the robotic instruments and digital devices will necessarily have to work with humans,” said Ananth Kalyanaraman, professor at Washington State University and director of the AgAID institute. “That’s going to actually empower humans because it gives them new skillsets.”

For now, it’s unclear to many farm workers how the robots will affect their livelihood. “If they’re used properly, they can actually be a support system for workers and improve standards at work,” says Reyna Lopez, executive director of PCUN, a Latinx farm workers’ organization in Oregon.

But so far, Lopez and others say they have not been involved in conversations about the fruit-picking robots. “Historically, farm workers have not been placed at the center of any of these conversations,” they say. Across various industries, including agriculture, waves of automation have led to job losses and a devaluing of human work. Often in the wake of such shifts, “what happens to low-wage workers is that people lose their jobs,” Lopez says.

The emergence of robotic farm workers could even be an opportunity for humans to engage in different – and far less strenuous – work than pruning or harvesting, says Ines Hanrahan, executive director of the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission. “There’s a lot of folks in rural communities who, even if they would like to, physically cannot do these jobs,” she says.

“When you take the physical aspect out, these tasks become more accessible to older workers or those less physically capable of lugging ladders and things. It enables more people to be drawn into this work.”

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