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Francis Kurkdjian, creator of Baccarat Rouge 540: ‘People went crazy and it sold out immediately’ | Culture




Some people believe that Francis Kurkdjian is, among those who are still alive and working in the industry, the best “nose” in the world. To find him, you have to go to an old building on Rue Étienne Marcel in Paris. The old elevator, locked with a giant padlock, advertises that the only available option is a dark wooden staircase, covered with a red carpet. No sophisticated scent marks the way, no code of classic luxury hints at the work carried out here. The door to the apartment where Kurkdjian has his office is small and made of old wood. Until someone from his team appears with a big smile, I’m not sure I’ve arrived at the right place. Once inside, in an office with three balconies and an orange tree is the creator of Baccarat Rouge 540, one of the best-selling (and most copied) fragrances produced in the past five years. Kurkdjian, of Armenian descent, is a shy version of what we might call a successful man. And he knows it. Today he has little desire to talk. It is 8am.

Not many perfume houses bear the name of their creator. The job of a nose has for centuries been carried out in the shadows. Kurkdjian himself, after more than a decade in the industry and having having been behind major bestsellers such as Jean-Paul Gaultier’s Le Male, remained a perfect unknown when he met Marc Chaya, now co-founder of Maison Francis Kurkdjian, at a dinner party. Putting his name on a bottle and a brand was his idea. When they met in 2003, Chaya was surprised because despite all of Kurkdjian’s success, his name didn’t even ring a bell. It seemed to Chaya that the industry didn’t give perfumers their due.

Kurkdjian samples an essence.
Kurkdjian samples an essence. Léa Crespi

Kurkdjian says that in his family, historically, there was “no trace” of the craft. However, every morning his grandfather would put together several essences and create his own perfume. “I would look at him fascinated and with pride, but I could never figure out the formula.” He remembers his grandmother as affectionate, kissing him and enveloping him in her usual scent: Femme, by Rochas. “I have it engraved on my skin!” His mother, on the other hand, quickly tired of one perfume or another: “She went from fresh scents like First, by Van Cleef & Arpels, or Fidji, by Guy Laroche, to the forceful Mitsouko, by Guerlain. I think she was very modern for the time.” Kurkdjian’s father always smelled the same: Kouros by Yves Saint Laurent.

The world of fragrances did not interest the young Kurkdjian at all: he wanted to be a classical dancer. After a few classes with a ballet teacher at the Paris Opera and a brief foray in dance he became interested in couture and fashion, but that didn’t work out either. “I was 14 when I discovered in a magazine that designers were not the ones who created their fragrances, that there were people behind it and that was a job in itself. Even then it seemed to me that a perfume is haute couture, it’s even closer to the skin than any garment.” As such, he enrolled at the ISIPCA school of fragrance and cosmetics in Versailles.

A commemorative bottle celebrating 10 years of the first fragrance created for Kurkdjian's first maison, which makes scents on demand.
A commemorative bottle celebrating 10 years of the first fragrance created for Kurkdjian’s first maison, which makes scents on demand. Léa Crespi

By the time he was 25 he had already created Le Male for Jean-Paul Gaultier, the first in a long list: For Her (Narciso Rodriguez), Green Tea (Elizabeth Arden), Le Parfum (Elie Saab), and up to 40 fragrances that have been among the world’s bestsellers for years. However, 12 years in the corporate world of large companies left him with a desire for independence. In 2009, he founded his eponymous brand with Chaya, engraving his own name on bottles and labels: Maison Francis Kurkdjian.

Kurkdjian, however, still does work for the big guys: as of 2021, he has been creative director of fragrances for Christian Dior, but now he is also one of them. His name is everywhere. The advertising for his latest fragrance, 724, inspired by the energy of the streets of Manhattan and, specifically, by a phrase by Simone de Beauvoir from the book America Day by Day – “There’s something in the New York air that makes sleep useless” – covers the canopies of downtown Paris and the Galeries Lafayette building, but also the Saks Fifth Avenue department store in New York itself. In 2017, the luxury emporium LVMH acquired a majority share of Maison Francis Kurkdjian to accelerate its international expansion, especially in Russia and China. As of the end of 2022 the maison, which still clings to its identity as an independent venture but rejects the label of niche brand, is present in 700 points of sale in 45 countries.

Maison Francis Kurkdjian fragrances. In the center, in red, Baccarat Rouge 540, the most popular perfume of 2022.
Maison Francis Kurkdjian fragrances. In the center, in red, Baccarat Rouge 540, the most popular perfume of 2022.Léa Crespi

“It’s still a challenge to create under someone else’s orders, but it’s no easier or harder than doing it for my own brand. When I work for large houses I have a deadline and a budget. Often my creation is tested in a market study. On the other hand, for my brand, I take care of everything, from the name of the fragrance to the packaging. I can’t hide and my inspiration is all I have. Marketing is at the service of a genuine artistic vision. That is unique in the industry,” says Kurkdjian.

The fragrance that generated the most conversation on social media in 2022 is Baccarat Rouge 540, one of Kurkdjian’s masterpieces. That’s the conclusion of an online survey by British deals site Hey Discount, which also analyzed annual data on Google searches (5,967,000), TikTok views (110,700,000) and Instagram hashtags (205,707). “Success is sometimes unpredictable. I think people have become obsessed with that scent because it has a unique olfactory imprint that we have achieved with a woody floral and ambery composition,” Kurkdjian says. The history of Baccarat Rouge 540 is a succession of coincidences. It was commissioned by Baccarat in 2014 to celebrate its 250th anniversary and only 250 numbered bottles were released. “But people went crazy and it sold out immediately,” recalls the perfumer. A few months later, it was relaunched as part of their permanent collection with the maison’s signature square, minimalist bottle. Baccarat Rouge 540 is also one of the most copied fragrances in the world. “It’s a shame, promoting the purchase of copies is against copyright. A group of perfumers have come together to fight for intellectual property to be recognized in the perfume world.”

In his office, Kurkdjian works next to his old mini-laboratory of aromas, a briefcase that holds all manner of fragrances. In small vials, some transparent and others amber, all kinds of essences are preserved. It is reminiscent of an alchemist’s selection of potions. Some of them smell frankly unpleasant. Only he would know how to create a great perfume out of them.

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Danish shipping giant Maersk ‘lobbied’ to be excluded from global tax deal





The Danish shipping giant Maersk held meetings with Denmark’s tax and maritime authorities to advise them on how best to shield the shipping industry from the OECD’s global minimum tax deal, according to a Danish media report.

Published: 8 February 2023 16:21 CET

The revelations, reported by broadcaster DR, come as the company on Wednesday reported record profits of 203 billion kroner, on which it paid just 3 percent in tax. 

They are particularly damaging to the company because of the claim last year from Maersk’s then CEO Søren Skou that his company was open to paying more tax, so long as it was through a global agreement via the OECD, precisely the sort of agreement the company was behind the scenes trying to exclude itself from. 

“It seems as if Maersk is playing a double game,” Lars Koch from the poverty charity Oxfam, told DR after he was presented with the evidence. 

“We can see from the access to documents the number of meetings and close and confidential dialogue”, he added. “Here they agree and inform each other about what Denmark should argue in these international negotiations on a tax agreement and they work actively to safeguard Maersk’s interests by exempting the shipping companies.” 

The broadcaster report was based on internal documents obtained from the Ministry of Taxation and the Danish Maritime Authority. 

The documents show that in June 2020, representatives of the company held a meeting with the Ministry of Taxation in which they they discussed strategies on excluding shipping from the OECD agreement on minimum tax. 

Soon afterwards, the industry lobby group Danish Shipping (Danske Rederier), where Maersk plays a leading role, wrote to the Ministry of Taxation and the Danish Maritime Authority warning that the OECD proposal “creates considerable uncertainty in our hinterland”.

Then in June 2021, a representative from ​the Danish Maritime Authority thanked Danish Shipping for supplying it with arguments it could use to push for shipping to be excluded, saying, “it was extremely well done. A thousand thanks for your efforts.”

Finally, when shipping was exempted from the OECD agreement in July 2021, a representative from Danish Shipping thanked the Danish Maritime Authority for “the orientation and for being aware of the special challenges of shipping”. 

Mette Mellemgaard Jakobsen, Maersk’s head of tax, admitted that her company had tried to influence the process.

“We were specifically concerned about how these rules would be implemented, and we had a concrete concern that it would create an increased distortion of competition,” she told DR. 

“For us, it is absolutely crucial that we are not put at a disadvantage compared to other shipping companies around the world. That is why global agreements are the most important thing for us.”

Rasmus Corlin Christensen, a researcher in international tax at Copenhagen Business School, said that Maersk’s double game was quite “striking”.

“On the one hand, you support and work for global solutions, the shipping industry included. But at the same time you can see that, at least when it comes to the global reforms that have been discussed in recent years, they did not want the shipping industry to be covered.” 

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The Whale: Fatphobia on the screen: Society ‘would really prefer for fat people not to exist in public’ | Culture




Contemporary TV fiction does not shy away from polarizing topics. From the capitalist nightmare of Severance (2022) to the mental health issues of Euphoria (2019,) shows increasingly incorporate social debates into their plot lines in response to a growing interest. Gone are the years of the 1990s escapism of Friends and The Office’s controversial canned laughter. Now, for a show to succeed, it must actively participate in the cultural conversation.

This trend is particularly reflected in awards like the Golden Globes, which recently recognized socially engaged productions such as Abbott Elementary or The Bear. Despite this progress, most of these shows haven’t yet broken one of the last taboos in fiction: the lack of body diversity and representation of fat characters.

Anti-fatness is an accepted, widespread discrimination – tiny airplane seats, body-related comments – and fat people remain culturally marginalized. Society “doesn’t like talking to fat people, looking at fat people, believing fat people [and] listening to fat people,” says Lyla Byers, a researcher at Virginia Tech. “We would really prefer for fat people not to exist in public.”

As a result, obese people can suffer serious health consequences. “When I was a child, I suffered medical violence; I was very thin but a pediatrician put me on 18,000 diets,” says Spanish actress Laura Galán Montijano, who starred in the award-winning Piggy (2022). “She was obsessed with my weight, she used to weigh me every week.”

Even some medical terms like “obesity” or “overweight” are problematic, based on a non-inclusive metric: the body mass index (BMI). “BMI was never meant to be used to measure individual health,“ says Byers. “It’s way too simple a measurement for way too complex an issue,” adds Jennifer Graves, author of Framing Fat, a book that challenges the dominant weight discourses. “There are still significant civil rights issues that fat people face in terms of lack of protection against discrimination in the medical system.”

Laziness, stupidity, gluttony or having low sexual capital are some of the concepts associated with fat people, according to Jeanine Gailey, a sociology professor at Texas Christian University. “The cultural messaging is that fat is the worst thing one can be,” Gailey says. These stigmas are internalized by producers, who fail to include diverse perspectives. “When [women] are not desirable according to beauty standards, we’re not featured on screen,” says Montijano.

Laura Galán Montijano in a scene from the movie 'Piggy.'
Laura Galán Montijano in a scene from the movie ‘Piggy.’

And, when fiction does introduce fat characters, they are often reduced to old-school stereotypes, from the bullied girl of Debby Ryan’s Insatiable (2018) to the idiotic, slothful Homer Simpson. “Many people in society watch these shows or these movies, internalize these portrayals and believe these things about fat people,” says Ariane Prohaska, a researcher at the University of Alabama. “It leads us to treat fat people differently and to treat ourselves differently, in a way that makes us believe that we have to constantly be improving our bodies.”

Reducing obese people to caricatures especially affects traditionally marginalized minority groups, such as women, people of color and the LGBTQI+ community. “Body size intersects with other dimensions of oppression,” says Prohaska. “So, women of color, particularly Black women, face a lot of stigma.” Big Shirley, a recurring character on the television show Martin, is a classic example of a problematic portrayal of fat Black women on TV, as is America Ferrera’s character on Ugly Betty.

Fat white women have managed to diversify their roles in American fiction thanks to the work of actresses like Melissa McCarthy or Lena Dunham. But “Hollywood Fatness” is not representative of the US a whole. Chrissy Metz, for example, said in 2016 that as part of her This is Us contract, where she played a woman struggling with eating habits, she had to lose weight. Later, however, she retracted her comments. “Gatekeepers, the people who are behind the scenes deciding what stories Americans are going to buy, tend to be white, wealthy and male,” says Virgie Tovar, a writer and expert on body discrimination. “This creates a cycle of the same kinds of stories being told over and over again.”

When it comes to queer men, fiction narrowly focuses on the body cult that characterizes part of the community through masculine, beefy characters such as those in Élite (2018,) Smiley (2022) or in the last season of American Horror Story. “It really is paradoxical that the diversity the LGBTQI+ community demands is not practiced within it,” says Roberto Enríquez, critic and creator of Queer You Are (2021.)

In the show, Enríquez self-fictionalizes his own youth through Gabriel Sánchez and Carlos González, who embody the double discrimination the director has suffered because of his sexual orientation and his body. “I was clear that, if I was going to do the show, I was going to do it my own way,” says Enríquez. “They had to be fat characters because that was the story I was telling, how they face life with those bodies, how they face rejection and desire.” In an interview for ICON, Sánchez spoke of the danger of stereotyping fat people. “If you’re fat, they make you do fat things. ‘I fall down and break the chair because I’m fat; I’m fat and I eat four pastries in 10 minutes.’ The fat guy always has scenes where he is binge-eating.”

Actors Gabriel Sánchez and Carlos González.
Actors Gabriel Sánchez and Carlos González. Pablo Zamora

If LGBTQI+ stories are still disruptive, triggering far-right censure, those that incorporate artists with non-normative bodies, away from the imposed canon and with plots beyond those of physical obsession, have an even greater subversive impact. “Queer bodies and fat bodies are seen as excessive, so when you have queer fat bodies, they are doubly destabilizing,” says Jason Whitesel, a sociologist at Illinois State University and author of Fat Gay Men, which examines fat stigma within gay male communities. “Most of our shows are put together by people who think the queer community is best represented by thin or muscular people.”

Even though fat suits are still employed by the entertainment industry, fiction has progressed from the rather cringeworthy “Fat Monica” episode of Friends. In The Girls at the Back (2022,) Mariona Terés plays Leo, a millennial woman who plans a trip with her friends after one is diagnosed with cancer. Terés, with a leading, cliché-free role, believes that many things have changed in recent years, albeit slowly. “We are seeing different bodies on screen, but we have to keep changing the clichés,” she says. “The next step is a fat woman playing a sexy character, in a romantic relationship with someone, and normalizing that her body is beautiful, that she can eat whatever she wants and fuck whoever she wants.”

María Rodríguez, Mariona Terés, Itsaso Arana, Mónica Miranda and Godeliv van den Brandt in the opening episode of 'The Girls at the Back.'
María Rodríguez, Mariona Terés, Itsaso Arana, Mónica Miranda and Godeliv van den Brandt in the opening episode of ‘The Girls at the Back.’JULIO VERGNE/NETFLIX (JULIO VERGNE/NETFLIX)

Besides expanding the narrative complexity of fat characters, fiction must increase their range of roles away from one-dimensional supporting characters haunted by their physical appearance.

“What I hope is that diversity is broadened in all senses,” says Carlota Pereda, director of Piggy. Without financial support from production companies, projects with leading fat characters will struggle to be developed. “When you’re looking for funding, some people won’t support you because they consider it a personal project just because you’ve put a non-normative character in the leading role.”

Although fiction lags behind a society that is largely critical of negative representations of fat characters in productions like The Whale, the industry will eventually accept that non-Hollywood bodies exist and deserve to be represented, with complex storylines and free from humiliating fat suits. “I do think we’re going to see more and more diverse people on screen,” says Terés. “It’s a slow road, but we’ll get to the other side.”

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German defence minister makes surprise Kyiv visit




The brinksmanship has won plaudits from some who argue that by holding out, the German leader managed to get the United States to reverse its stance and send Abrams tanks — bringing about a bigger win for Ukraine.

But other analysts warn the weeks of delay may have left a deeper mark on Scholz’s international reputation, while also hurting Kyiv’s chances against Russian troops on the battlefield.

“The SPD chancellor has achieved one of his biggest aims: delivering battle tanks only in step with the Americans,” wrote Die Zeit weekly.

READ ALSO: Fact check: How much help has Germany given Ukraine?

Scholz’s “unusual and risky move… worked”, it added.

Conservative broadsheet Die Welt called it a “coup” for the chancellor. “Scholz has managed to get the US to change course,” it said.

‘Won’t be pushed’

In recent weeks, as allies and Kyiv alike harangued him for tanks, Scholz stressed the need for international coordination and ruled out going it alone on the heavy military equipment.

With an eye on public opinion, Scholz has been careful not to appear to be hawkishly leading the charge when it comes to military supplies to Ukraine.

Fielding questions at the Bundestag following Wednesday’s announcement, Scholz pointedly avoided playing up the powerful Leopards’ capabilities and how they could affect the outcome in Ukraine.

READ ALSO: What difference could Germany’s Leopard 2 tanks make in Ukraine?

Rather, he repeatedly underlined that it was and is “right that we did not let ourselves be pushed into this but that we rely on and also continue on
close cooperation”.

It was perhaps not a coincidence that Scholz’s announcement came after public opinion shifted slightl in favour of sending tanks, with 46 percent for and 41 percent against on January 19.

Directly addressing fears of Germans, who have favoured treading lightly around conflict zones since World War II, Scholz pointedly said he would ensure that any support for Ukraine would be provided “without the risks for our country growing in the wrong direction”.

Asked later on ZDF public television whether his hesitation had led to a “loss of trust” among allies, Scholz rejected the criticism.

“Everyone knows we are making a big contribution, also compared to other countries, in terms of support for Ukraine — not only financially and with humanitarian aid but also with weapons.”

But some analysts said his concern for domestic politics may have cost Ukraine on the frontlines.


In the meantime, “several months” had been lost in the defence of Ukraine, while Scholz was “more concerned with domestic politics” and an issue he did not see as a “big vote winner”, Chatham House analyst John Lough told AFP.

Fears that moving too rashly would lead to an escalation in the war were exaggerated, too. Even without tank deliveries, “the Russians have escalated anyway”, for example by targeting critical infrastructure in Ukraine, Lough said.

Amid the ruckus, particularly with neighbouring Poland accusing Scholz of dithering, analysts point to the damage done to Germany’s reputation.

Bild daily piled on the pressure at home, accusing Scholz of cowardice. But a day later, a high-profile defence ministers’ meeting of Ukraine allies last Friday still failed to break the deadlock on tanks.

The delay was “embarrassing for the German government”, said Lough.

READ ALSO: Germany gives greenlight for Leopard tank deliveries to Ukraine

Olaf Scholz

German Chancellor Olaf Scholz (SPD) comments on the Russian attack on Ukraine during a press conference at the Chancellery on February 24th, 2022. Photo: picture alliance/dpa | Michael Kappeler

Sudha David-Wilp, director of the German Marshall Fund’s Berlin office, said moving in lock-step with the United States gave Scholz the “political cover he needed” to say “yes” to German tank deliveries.

But his short-term win was not “necessarily good for Germany because it has lost a lot of trust” with key partners, David-Wilp said.

The way the tank drama played out “clearly shows that the US needs to play a leadership role in Europe” and its security, while German leadership remained “elusive”, she said.

Yet, for all the apparent damage to Scholz, there might be a winner.

The unexpected US tank commitment means that officials in Ukraine have “all kinds of different kit now”, David-Wilp added.

By Sebastien Ash

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