When Marqués de Riscal produced its first wine in 1862, Americans were immersed in the Civil War and French writer Victor Hugo had just published Les Misérables. These milestones provide some perspective on the historic event that took place last September, when the Spanish winery opened three of the only 16 remaining bottles from that vintage to kick off a unique tasting that spanned three centuries and showed that history can also be told through a glass of wine.
That wine from 1862 represents the oldest bottled Riojas in existence. With less than 10% of alcohol content (today the region’s reds range between 13% and 14.5%) and a more than decent color for its age, the liquid that poured out of the bottles at the tasting expressed earthy and tobacco notes, while excellent acidity served as the backbone to provide energy and persistence on the palate. It could have easily passed for a 40 or 50-year old red, except that it was 160 years old instead.
The collection that Marqués de Riscal carefully guards in its old wine cellar, the Botellería Histórica, is unique in the world, and it has miraculously remained intact through the ages in the silence and darkness of its underground cellars. The only changes to have taken place down here were to replace corks from specific bottles under the supervision of the Regulatory Council [which oversees adherence to the quality standards of the denominación de origen, similar to France’s appellation d’origine.]
The Marqués de Riscal winery, recently declared the second-best in the world, was born with the desire to produce fine wines that would age well. This was the vision of its founder, Guillermo Hurtado de Amézaga (1795-1878), the Marquis of Riscal, who had moved to Bordeaux in 1836 to avoid the political turmoil back home. The Spanish nobleman made the most of the vibrant commercial life this French city had to offer. His business prospered and he began to rub shoulders with members of a society that included the owners of some of the area’s most prestigious châteaux.
Very soon, he would have the opportunity to follow in their footsteps: he inherited a wine-producing property from his sister in Elciego, a municipality in northern Spain located in Álava province, within the current limits of what is now known as La Rioja Alavesa (because of its wine production and geographical proximity to the region of La Rioja, which the wines are named after). At the time, Rioja wines lacked the quality and prestige of their French counterparts, but the local administration teamed up with other producers with the common goal of raising the standard, and this gave birth to the Médoc Alavés. This initiative, named after the most famous area of Bordeaux and financed by the Álava Provincial Council, benefited from Hurtado de Amézaga’s contacts: they were able to hire Cadiche Pineau, an enologist at the then prestigious Château Lanessan, who showed up in La Rioja in the summer of 1862, in time to buy barrels, vats and all the necessary material for that first historic vintage.
One of the commandments of the Bordeaux philosophy was that wine had to be stabilized by aging it in oak barrels for at least two years, which created fixed assets and delayed profits. Although the wines were a success, a shortage of resources put an end to the Médoc Alavés. But the marquis carried on: he hired Pineau and continued to apply the French model. This included the sale of wine through Bordeaux merchants, the cultivation of French grape varieties alongside local ones, and the habit of hiring French enologists, a custom that continued until the mid-1950s.
If the 19th century was particularly turbulent at the political level, European vineyards also had to deal with plagues brought over from America. After mildew, the devastation created by phylloxera was a turning point in the world of winemaking. The only effective deterrent to the root-eating insect was to graft the European vines onto American rootstock, naturally immune to the pest’s attack.
Thus, nothing interfered with the flow of sap between the root and the aerial part of the plant in the vines that fed the 19th century red wines. Cultivation was restricted to the poorest soils, yields were low, and grape berries were small and concentrated. Only this can explain the fact that vintages such as 1870, 1876, 1886 or 1899 have amazingly preserved not only their color (1870 could pass for a 1970), but also their presence and volume on the palate, when the most common type of old Riojas are comprised of light and silky reds outlined by their acidity. In Riscal, in fact, the two styles coexist (there is the delicate and subtle expression of an 1871 or the evocative character of a ١٩٢٨), but it is the first one that gives the winery its differential touch.
The aromas of these centuries-old wines range from powdery notes to much more complex and even Baroque expressions: hints of brandy, dried fruit, sweet spices, coffee or chocolate. At the turn of the century, the 1909 and 1911 vintages, thinner and lighter, evidenced the lesser depth of the young vines and the slow reconstruction that followed the phylloxera crisis, although they retained a certain liveliness, particularly those from 1911. The wines from the 1920s were full of energy: with fruity notes in the 1922 vintage and mentholated, round and elegant ones in 1924. And 1935 made an impact due to its silkiness, rich nuances, herbal freshness and long finish.
Inside the documentary archive at Marqués de Riscal, there are old books, detailed descriptions of the different harvests and even characterizations of varieties developed by French engineers. “What there is no written record of is the percentages of varieties that they used in the wines,” notes Francisco Hurtado de Amézaga, the winery’s technical director for the last four decades and great-great-grandson of the founder. In the 19th century, it was common to mix grape varieties, including white and red ones, in the same vine. If the Tempranillo grape has always been present (Hurtado de Amézaga says that the best examples are exceptional), Graciano was the most difficult variety to bring back after phylloxera.
Of the grape varieties brought from France, Cabernet Sauvignon began to gain relevance starting in 1870, and it is the one that has had the greatest continuity to this day. Starting in the 1920s, but especially in the 1940s and 50s, the wines in which it was most present were internally labeled as Reserva Médoc or XR (Xtra Reserva). The paradigm of this style is the 1945 vintage, which produced a wide, exultant, very fine, serious wine with an endless finish that provides the characteristic notes of leaves and currant of this grape variety. It could pass for a great Bordeaux, and it is, without a doubt, one of the best reds that have ever been produced in Rioja and in Spain as a whole.
After a period that focused on wines with less aging capacity in the late 1960s, that indisputable wine from 1945 was the inspiration for what is considered the first modern Rioja. Barón de Chirel made his debut with a 1986 vintage that looked to France and benefited from the advice of renowned enologists such as Guy Guimberteau, Paul Pontallier or the current consultant, Valérie Lavigne.
More than a century and a half after its founding, Marqués de Riscal is perhaps best known for the Frank Gehry architecture that greets visitors, but its essence remains contained in each of the more than 140,000 bottles that sleep in its venerable cellars.
The Danish shipping giant Maersk held meetings with Denmark’s tax and maritime authorities to advise them on how best to shield the shipping industry from the OECD’s global minimum tax deal, according to a Danish media report.
Published: 8 February 2023 16:21 CET
The revelations, reported by broadcaster DR, come as the company on Wednesday reported record profits of 203 billion kroner, on which it paid just 3 percent in tax.
They are particularly damaging to the company because of the claim last year from Maersk’s then CEO Søren Skou that his company was open to paying more tax, so long as it was through a global agreement via the OECD, precisely the sort of agreement the company was behind the scenes trying to exclude itself from.
“It seems as if Maersk is playing a double game,” Lars Koch from the poverty charity Oxfam, told DR after he was presented with the evidence.
“We can see from the access to documents the number of meetings and close and confidential dialogue”, he added. “Here they agree and inform each other about what Denmark should argue in these international negotiations on a tax agreement and they work actively to safeguard Maersk’s interests by exempting the shipping companies.”
The broadcaster report was based on internal documents obtained from the Ministry of Taxation and the Danish Maritime Authority.
The documents show that in June 2020, representatives of the company held a meeting with the Ministry of Taxation in which they they discussed strategies on excluding shipping from the OECD agreement on minimum tax.
Soon afterwards, the industry lobby group Danish Shipping (Danske Rederier), where Maersk plays a leading role, wrote to the Ministry of Taxation and the Danish Maritime Authority warning that the OECD proposal “creates considerable uncertainty in our hinterland”.
Then in June 2021, a representative from the Danish Maritime Authority thanked Danish Shipping for supplying it with arguments it could use to push for shipping to be excluded, saying, “it was extremely well done. A thousand thanks for your efforts.”
Finally, when shipping was exempted from the OECD agreement in July 2021, a representative from Danish Shipping thanked the Danish Maritime Authority for “the orientation and for being aware of the special challenges of shipping”.
Mette Mellemgaard Jakobsen, Maersk’s head of tax, admitted that her company had tried to influence the process.
“We were specifically concerned about how these rules would be implemented, and we had a concrete concern that it would create an increased distortion of competition,” she told DR.
“For us, it is absolutely crucial that we are not put at a disadvantage compared to other shipping companies around the world. That is why global agreements are the most important thing for us.”
Rasmus Corlin Christensen, a researcher in international tax at Copenhagen Business School, said that Maersk’s double game was quite “striking”.
“On the one hand, you support and work for global solutions, the shipping industry included. But at the same time you can see that, at least when it comes to the global reforms that have been discussed in recent years, they did not want the shipping industry to be covered.”
Contemporary TV fiction does not shy away from polarizing topics. From the capitalist nightmare of Severance (2022) to the mental health issues of Euphoria(2019,) shows increasingly incorporate social debates into their plot lines in response to a growing interest. Gone are the years of the 1990s escapism of Friends and The Office’s controversial canned laughter. Now, for a show to succeed, it must actively participate in the cultural conversation.
This trend is particularly reflected in awards like the Golden Globes, which recently recognized socially engaged productions such as Abbott Elementary or The Bear. Despite this progress, most of these shows haven’t yet broken one of the last taboos in fiction: the lack of body diversity and representation of fat characters.
Anti-fatness is an accepted, widespread discrimination – tiny airplane seats, body-related comments – and fat people remain culturally marginalized. Society “doesn’t like talking to fat people, looking at fat people, believing fat people [and] listening to fat people,” says Lyla Byers, a researcher at Virginia Tech. “We would really prefer for fat people not to exist in public.”
As a result, obese people can suffer serious health consequences. “When I was a child, I suffered medical violence; I was very thin but a pediatrician put me on 18,000 diets,” says Spanish actress Laura Galán Montijano, who starred in the award-winning Piggy (2022). “She was obsessed with my weight, she used to weigh me every week.”
Even some medical terms like “obesity” or “overweight” are problematic, based on a non-inclusive metric: the body mass index (BMI). “BMI was never meant to be used to measure individual health,“ says Byers. “It’s way too simple a measurement for way too complex an issue,” adds Jennifer Graves, author of Framing Fat, a book that challenges the dominant weight discourses. “There are still significant civil rights issues that fat people face in terms of lack of protection against discrimination in the medical system.”
Laziness, stupidity, gluttony or having low sexual capital are some of the concepts associated with fat people, according to Jeanine Gailey, a sociology professor at Texas Christian University. “The cultural messaging is that fat is the worst thing one can be,” Gailey says. These stigmas are internalized by producers, who fail to include diverse perspectives. “When [women] are not desirable according to beauty standards, we’re not featured on screen,” says Montijano.
And, when fiction does introduce fat characters, they are often reduced to old-school stereotypes, from the bullied girl of Debby Ryan’s Insatiable (2018) to the idiotic, slothful Homer Simpson. “Many people in society watch these shows or these movies, internalize these portrayals and believe these things about fat people,” says Ariane Prohaska, a researcher at the University of Alabama. “It leads us to treat fat people differently and to treat ourselves differently, in a way that makes us believe that we have to constantly be improving our bodies.”
Reducing obese people to caricatures especially affects traditionally marginalized minority groups, such as women, people of color and the LGBTQI+ community. “Body size intersects with other dimensions of oppression,” says Prohaska. “So, women of color, particularly Black women, face a lot of stigma.” Big Shirley, a recurring character on the television show Martin, is a classic example of a problematic portrayal of fat Black women on TV, as is America Ferrera’s character on Ugly Betty.
Fat white women have managed to diversify their roles in American fiction thanks to the work of actresses like Melissa McCarthy or Lena Dunham. But “Hollywood Fatness” is not representative of the US a whole. Chrissy Metz, for example, said in 2016 that as part of her This is Us contract, where she played a woman struggling with eating habits, she had to lose weight. Later, however, she retracted her comments. “Gatekeepers, the people who are behind the scenes deciding what stories Americans are going to buy, tend to be white, wealthy and male,” says Virgie Tovar, a writer and expert on body discrimination. “This creates a cycle of the same kinds of stories being told over and over again.”
When it comes to queer men, fiction narrowly focuses on the body cult that characterizes part of the community through masculine, beefy characters such as those in Élite (2018,) Smiley (2022) or in the last season of American Horror Story. “It really is paradoxical that the diversity the LGBTQI+ community demands is not practiced within it,” says Roberto Enríquez, critic and creator of Queer You Are (2021.)
In the show, Enríquez self-fictionalizes his own youth through Gabriel Sánchez and Carlos González, who embody the double discrimination the director has suffered because of his sexual orientation and his body. “I was clear that, if I was going to do the show, I was going to do it my own way,” says Enríquez. “They had to be fat characters because that was the story I was telling, how they face life with those bodies, how they face rejection and desire.” In an interview for ICON, Sánchez spoke of the danger of stereotyping fat people. “If you’re fat, they make you do fat things. ‘I fall down and break the chair because I’m fat; I’m fat and I eat four pastries in 10 minutes.’ The fat guy always has scenes where he is binge-eating.”
If LGBTQI+ stories are still disruptive, triggering far-right censure, those that incorporate artists with non-normative bodies, away from the imposed canon and with plots beyond those of physical obsession, have an even greater subversive impact. “Queer bodies and fat bodies are seen as excessive, so when you have queer fat bodies, they are doubly destabilizing,” says Jason Whitesel, a sociologist at Illinois State University and author of Fat Gay Men, which examines fat stigma within gay male communities. “Most of our shows are put together by people who think the queer community is best represented by thin or muscular people.”
Even though fat suits are still employed by the entertainment industry, fiction has progressed from the rather cringeworthy “Fat Monica” episode of Friends. In The Girls at the Back (2022,) Mariona Terés plays Leo, a millennial woman who plans a trip with her friends after one is diagnosed with cancer. Terés, with a leading, cliché-free role, believes that many things have changed in recent years, albeit slowly. “We are seeing different bodies on screen, but we have to keep changing the clichés,” she says. “The next step is a fat woman playing a sexy character, in a romantic relationship with someone, and normalizing that her body is beautiful, that she can eat whatever she wants and fuck whoever she wants.”
Besides expanding the narrative complexity of fat characters, fiction must increase their range of roles away from one-dimensional supporting characters haunted by their physical appearance.
“What I hope is that diversity is broadened in all senses,” says Carlota Pereda, director of Piggy. Without financial support from production companies, projects with leading fat characters will struggle to be developed. “When you’re looking for funding, some people won’t support you because they consider it a personal project just because you’ve put a non-normative character in the leading role.”
Although fiction lags behind a society that is largely critical of negative representations of fat characters in productions like The Whale, the industry will eventually accept that non-Hollywood bodies exist and deserve to be represented, with complex storylines and free from humiliating fat suits. “I do think we’re going to see more and more diverse people on screen,” says Terés. “It’s a slow road, but we’ll get to the other side.”
The brinksmanship has won plaudits from some who argue that by holding out, the German leader managed to get the United States to reverse its stance and send Abrams tanks — bringing about a bigger win for Ukraine.
But other analysts warn the weeks of delay may have left a deeper mark on Scholz’s international reputation, while also hurting Kyiv’s chances against Russian troops on the battlefield.
“The SPD chancellor has achieved one of his biggest aims: delivering battle tanks only in step with the Americans,” wrote Die Zeit weekly.
Rather, he repeatedly underlined that it was and is “right that we did not let ourselves be pushed into this but that we rely on and also continue on close cooperation”.
It was perhaps not a coincidence that Scholz’s announcement came after public opinion shifted slightl in favour of sending tanks, with 46 percent for and 41 percent against on January 19.
Directly addressing fears of Germans, who have favoured treading lightly around conflict zones since World War II, Scholz pointedly said he would ensure that any support for Ukraine would be provided “without the risks for our country growing in the wrong direction”.
Asked later on ZDF public television whether his hesitation had led to a “loss of trust” among allies, Scholz rejected the criticism.
“Everyone knows we are making a big contribution, also compared to other countries, in terms of support for Ukraine — not only financially and with humanitarian aid but also with weapons.”
But some analysts said his concern for domestic politics may have cost Ukraine on the frontlines.
In the meantime, “several months” had been lost in the defence of Ukraine, while Scholz was “more concerned with domestic politics” and an issue he did not see as a “big vote winner”, Chatham House analyst John Lough told AFP.
Fears that moving too rashly would lead to an escalation in the war were exaggerated, too. Even without tank deliveries, “the Russians have escalated anyway”, for example by targeting critical infrastructure in Ukraine, Lough said.
Amid the ruckus, particularly with neighbouring Poland accusing Scholz of dithering, analysts point to the damage done to Germany’s reputation.
Bild daily piled on the pressure at home, accusing Scholz of cowardice. But a day later, a high-profile defence ministers’ meeting of Ukraine allies last Friday still failed to break the deadlock on tanks.
The delay was “embarrassing for the German government”, said Lough.
German Chancellor Olaf Scholz (SPD) comments on the Russian attack on Ukraine during a press conference at the Chancellery on February 24th, 2022. Photo: picture alliance/dpa | Michael Kappeler
Sudha David-Wilp, director of the German Marshall Fund’s Berlin office, said moving in lock-step with the United States gave Scholz the “political cover he needed” to say “yes” to German tank deliveries.
But his short-term win was not “necessarily good for Germany because it has lost a lot of trust” with key partners, David-Wilp said.
The way the tank drama played out “clearly shows that the US needs to play a leadership role in Europe” and its security, while German leadership remained “elusive”, she said.
Yet, for all the apparent damage to Scholz, there might be a winner.
The unexpected US tank commitment means that officials in Ukraine have “all kinds of different kit now”, David-Wilp added.