Connect with us

Technology

Unlocking the full potential of healthcare with software research at Lero

Voice Of EU

Published

on

Researchers at Lero are discovering how software engineering can help healthcare catch up to the digital age.

Our world is one where healthcare revolutions come in many forms. Penicillin, insulin, vaccination, the discovery of DNA – the list goes on. All of them have shaped the way we conceptualise and treat our bodies, and the way clinicians treat their patients. The field of medicine is rapidly advancing, and yesterday’s science fictions are now in early trials.

What, then, is the role of Lero, the Science Foundation Ireland research centre for software? Hosted by the University of Limerick, Lero’s research covers everything from driverless cars and artificial intelligence to cybersecurity, fintech, gov-tech, smart communities, agtech and health-tech.

But what can software engineering and computer programming offer healthcare? Connection, digitisation and integration are just some of the benefits.

‘I talk about technology supporting, not replacing’
– PROF ITA RICHARDSON

Lero researchers have a plethora of health problems they would like to solve with software. A recent example involved a public health nurse arriving to check on an elderly patient. Of the 15 minutes assigned to the visit, thirteen minutes were spent recording the details required for a new mattress. After taking down this information, later to be transcribed to an online system, the nurse did what she could for the patient in the short time left.

The following day, the nurse was shopping and noticed a shipment of bread being delivered. The barcodes had all of the information needed for the process and were quickly scanned with a handheld device. Why did this similar process take less than 10 seconds, while the health system had no such ability? Why not scan the mattress, and send this information to the system?

For all of our amazing advances, there is a disconnect that hampers our healthcare. Technology is of no help if the user doesn’t have sufficient access. A profile of health problems is futile if it is stored on an inaccessible paper file. A treatment plan for a brain disorder lacks efficacy when it is misplaced or, worse still, never recorded for a patient. A doctor can’t analyse information they never received. And this is all too often the world we live in.

Our healthcare system is handicapped not by a lack of understanding or ability, but by inadequate communication systems that can’t cope with the volume or sophistication that must be accommodated. For Lero, software is the answer.

An ear for surgery

Our world is one where sound is abundant with information. Auditory analysis can map the seabed. The depth of a turkey’s ‘gobble’ might infer how many kilograms it weighs. And, most importantly to mechanical and medical engineer Dr Daniel Riordan, sound can tell a surgeon when to stop scooping bone marrow from a femur.

When a hip is being replaced, the ball of the ball and socket joint is sawn off. Its replacement is put in, and a stem is inserted into the femur to attach it. If the stem is inserted directly into the soft marrow, there will be some wobble and an instability in the hip. As a result, it is necessary to scrape out the marrow until the stem can be secured. If too little marrow is taken out, the hip won’t be secure. Too much, and the bone will crack.

Currently, surgeons performing a hip surgery replacement know when to stop by the sound and feel of the instrument inside the bone. There’s no precise measurement or feedback system. No exact way to know when the surgery is finished. There is just a sense from the tactile and auditory feedback, honed from years of experience.

New medical students practise with fake limbs before levelling up to pig bones (the closest animal analogue) and then onto human cadavers before finally taking the reins in the operating theatre.

Dr John Rice is an orthopaedic surgeon with years of experience in the process, and Lero’s team hope to replicate his ear in software. By recording auditory information as well as the level of success of the surgery, Riordan hopes to replicate this feedback system and empower other surgeons with Rice’s finely tuned experience.

‘The real research is the AI to make this work, to understand every bone and every person’
– DR DANIEL RIORDAN

Capturing Rice’s inherent knowledge of hip surgeries has the potential to save years of surgery training. But giving software this auditory intuition isn’t easy. Hips vary. People vary. Some are taller, some are wider, some are older. All of these factors affect the acoustics of the bone as if it was a musical instrument. Capturing the variation requires as many surgeries as possible. Riordan reckons it would take 100 participants for the software to be effective but the more, the better.

“The real research is the artificial intelligence to make this work, to understand every bone and every person. This project has a duration of four years, and if we find positive results, we would be looking at contacting teams that make surgical robots,” said Riordan.

Paging Dr Google

Our world is one where the knowledge gap between doctor and patient hinders both sides. Patients will try to help a doctor understand their situation in as much detail as they know to provide, but doctors are often left playing medical detective, picking up what they can in an effort to provide cure, care or both.

The more driven patients will take to Google to self-diagnose and speed the process along, as well as advocate for themselves. Practitioners, in response, will fall into one of two camps: those who dismiss the search results as unreliable, and those who parse through the information and evaluate through a medically trained lens.

From a doctor’s perspective, the problem with Google is multi-layered. Its search algorithm is not optimised for accuracy or balance. What’s more, many of the articles will be inaccessible due to medical jargon.

Lero is working to close this patient-doctor information gap. Dr Marco Alfano’s objective is to design an intelligent platform that will empower patients to act as their own advocate. This involves translating existing medical texts so they can be understood, and filtering existing web search results with an algorithm that reflects a patient’s needs, rather than a commercial driving force. It also involves fostering a medical understanding, as well as patient-to-patient relationships, and connecting communities.

As Alfano points out, very few of these needs even require innovation. What’s needed is a coherent design that can be given to patients. The technology is already there, if only it can be integrated.

He and his research team have been working on a prototype website. He types ‘diabetes’ into the custom search engine and the results are ranked on various degrees of accuracy and quality, with the logic of their ranking explained. He then takes this information and feeds it into the team’s text translator. Difficult words are highlighted and a brief explanation of tricky medical terminology is included. Medical files, textbook definitions and doctor’s comments suddenly make sense. He brings up a diagram of the human body, where he can point and click and assign an ailment in an effort to diagnose.

The technology is there. The knowledge is there. And integration could mean diagnosis and treatment is within reach.

Patient-led design

Sometimes the practice of healthcare is older than the technologies and techniques that comprise the system. Digital imaging files and results from advanced analytical techniques are often kept on paper. Physical space constraints can mean that the file is all too often out of reach when needed. Patients’ voices, if heard at all, are lost to mountains of paperwork and a system not yet digitised.

Lero’s work, however, is distinctly patient-driven. This philosophy is no more prominent than in the research conducted by Prof Ita Richardson and Dr Jim Buckley.

Richardson works on software processes for groups in need. These have included diabetics, people with mild intellectual disabilities, and the ageing population. By talking to these cohorts alongside their medical professionals, Richardson hopes to build apps that reflect what people need, rather than what software producers think they need. She acknowledges that many patient-generated apps have been amazing, but often fail to comply with EU regulations surrounding data safety and accessibility. And as these accessibility guidelines are more than 100 pages long, it is easy to understand why.

A man in a blue check shirt smiles as he leans with his back against a large tree.

Dr Jim Buckley. Image: Alan Place/Fusionshooters

Once data-compliant, patient-led apps have been designed and implemented, Richardson said the benefits are almost immediate. In the case of an app designed to measure a diabetic person’s weight, blood pressure and glucose levels, patient outcomes improved purely through the process of recording data and visualising it in graphs. By seeing how their blood sugars improved after a walk or with a healthier meal, patients implemented their own interventions.

Even the simple act of recording the data is valuable. And Richardson said the goal would be to feed this data back to the doctors to reduce the visits necessary and relieve stress on both patient and doctor contact hours.

“I talk about technology supporting, not replacing,” said Richardson. “Diabetes patients need to meet with their doctor for medical assessment. That’s different than needing to have their blood pressure checked every six weeks. They need to work out medically how often they need to meet.”

Reaching out to the relevant groups, fostering relationships and getting real-life patient feedback is key to what researchers call PPI: public and patient involvement. Through this process, needs can be understood, accounted for and integrated. It can also take researchers down unconventional routes.

Richardson told me of one colleague working with mastectomy patients who joined the Shannon Dragons, a group of Dragon Boat rowers. Rowing is particularly beneficial to those who have undergone mastectomies as the upper body and arm workout is essential to rehabilitation.

‘One of the big battles is adoption’
– DR JIM BUCKLEY

Buckley, on the other hand, is involved in the Covigilant project to evaluate the Irish public’s attitude to the Ireland’s Covid-19 tracking app. He and his team have been seeking out the public’s opinion on different aspects of the app. What works well and what doesn’t? What are their worries? What would they like to see implemented? They have no hypothesis or point to prove – their work simply aims to find out how people genuinely feel about the app on their phone.

The Covid Tracker Ireland app is likely the healthcare app people have become most familiar with. Developed by Waterford company Nearform for the Irish Government’s Health Service Executive (HSE), there is no weightier example of an app coming from the top down.

“One of the big battles is adoption. You want to get people adopting it, and people using it,” said Buckley. “My job isn’t to coerce people to use it, but to evaluate how it is perceived and see best international practice. And to feed that information back to the HSE so that they can consider the insights for future evolutions of the app.”

The first results of the Covigilant study found that 82pc were supportive of the app and intended to download it. The study also revealed fears, largely around data protection and privacy. However, after deployment, user reviews on the Apple and Google Play stores indicated that the public’s perception of the app, in terms of data protection, was favourable.

Lero researchers continued to seek people’s opinions in order to configure the app moving forward, often with interesting insights.

The Covid-19 tracker app isn’t without its flaws. An earlier iteration saw it draining the battery of thousands of Android phones, which was a big blow to adoption. A fix was applied within days, however, and the real strength of integrated health came to the fore.

While old systems can exist for decades with delays and issues, Lero hopes to put patient needs first and fully utilise every opportunity on offer. They hope to revolutionise healthcare using what is already there – the software that can unlock its full potential.

By Sam Cox

Sam Cox was named the science and technology winner in the 2020 National Student Media Awards (Smedias). This award category is sponsored by Science Foundation Ireland and includes a €1,000 bursary to support and encourage up-and-coming science and technology journalism.

The 2021 Smedias are now open for entries. The deadline for applications is 15 April 2021.

Source link

Technology

Microsoft vulnerabilities down for 2021 • The Register

Voice Of EU

Published

on

Despite a record number of publicly disclosed security flaws in 2021, Microsoft managed to improve its stats, according to research from BeyondTrust.

Figures from the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) show last year broke all records for security vulnerabilities. By December, according to pentester Redscan, 18,439 were recorded. That’s an average of more than 50 flaws a day.

However just 1,212 vulnerabilities were reported in Microsoft products last year, said BeyondTrust, a 5 percent drop on the previous year. In addition, critical vulnerabilities in the software (those with a CVSS score of 9 or more) plunged 47 percent, with the drop in Windows Server specifically down 50 percent. There was bad news for Internet Explorer and Edge vulnerabilities, though: they were up 280 percent on the prior year, with 349 flaws spotted in 2021.

BeyondTrust commented that analysis had been simplified by Microsoft’s move to the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), although an unfortunate side effect meant that security gurus can now determine the impact of administrative rights on critical vulnerabilities.

“From 2015 to 2020,” said the report, “removing admin rights could have mitigated, on average, 75 percent of critical vulnerabilities.”

It’s a very good point: keeping permissions to the bare minimum is excellent practice, although difficult to enforce.

The decline in vulnerabilities marks a change for Microsoft. In 2016, the count of vulnerabilities stood at 451, according to the report. By 2020 they had leapt to 1,268. A drop, even if only to 1,212, is a first. It’s just as well since between 2019 and 2020, there was a 48 percent rise in vulnerabilities year on year.

And the trendiest categories are…

The report also drilled into vulnerability categories. Topping the table with 326 and 588 vulnerabilities respectively were Remote Code Execution and Elevation of Privilege flaws, with the latter up from 559 in 2020. RCE was itself down in 2021 from 345 in the prior year.

Explaining the apparent explosion in Edge and Internet Explorer numbers (349 vulnerabilities up from 92 in 2020), BeyondTrust pointed to a consolidation in the browser market and a renewed focus on browser attacks as exploited plugins (such as Flash) were dropped and bug bounties made reporting vulnerabilities more financially attractive. It also pointed out that only six were critical (a record low).

The decline in Windows vulnerabilities was attributed to Microsoft’s efforts to improve the security architecture of its supported products, as was the fall in Windows Server holes. The move from security as an afterthought to something front and center is also a factor, even if it has taken a few iterations of operating systems.

That said, there were some spectacular holes in the company’s products during 2021. Last year’s Exchange Server vulnerabilities, for example, left many administrators scrambling to patch systems. 2021’s stability, from the standpoint of Microsoft’s vulnerabilities, must be considered alongside the rapid rises of previous years.

As the report authors note, simply patching the problems might not deal with the underlying issues. Removing admin rights and privileges also play a part in reducing the attack surface. ®

Source link

Continue Reading

Technology

Ford’s new car safety tech can automatically reduce vehicle speed

Voice Of EU

Published

on

The new Ford Geofencing Speed Limit Control system alerts a driver when the car breaks a speed limit – then slows down the vehicle.

Speed limit signs may soon be a thing of the past as Ford is now trialling connected vehicle technology that can automatically reduce a car’s speed in certain zones to improve road safety.

Up to 29pc of all road fatalities in Europe, depending on the country, are pedestrians and cyclists, according to a 2020 report by the European Transport Safety Council. Setting up speed limits in certain areas is one of the frontline measures to minimise road accidents.

Future Human

Now, US carmaker Ford is testing its new Geofencing Speed Limit Control system across two German cities, Cologne and Aachen, to see if the technology can help in making roads safer, preventing fines for drivers and improving the appearance of roadsides.

A geofence is a virtual parameter in a real-world area. It is often used by mobility companies and start-ups, such as Ireland’s Zipp Mobility, to identify and enforce low-speed zones in cities.

How does it work?

Ford’s new system uses geofencing technology to alert a driver through the dashboard when the vehicle enters an area with a designated speed limit. It then lowers the vehicle speed to match the limit automatically.

However, the driver can override the automated system and deactivate speed limit control at any time. They can also use the technology to set their own geofencing zones at speed as low as 20kmph.

“Connected vehicle technology has the proven potential to help make everyday driving easier and safer to benefit everyone, not just the person behind the wheel,” said Michael Huynh, manager of City Engagement Germany at Ford Europe.

“Geofencing can ensure speeds are reduced where – and even when – necessary to help improve safety and create a more pleasant environment.”

Ford already has in-built assistance technologies that help drivers ensure they are abiding by speed limits. However, the new geofencing speed limit control system is the first that can automatically reduce a vehicle’s speed without the driver’s intervention.

Eyes on the road

The year-long trial that runs until March 2023 is collaboration between the Ford City Engagement team, city officials in Cologne and Aachen, and Ford software engineers in Palo Alto, California.

Together with colleagues in Aachen, the Palo Alto engineers developed technology that connects the vehicle to the geofencing system for GPS tracking and data exchange.

Germany has more than 1,000 types of road signs, which can often confuse drivers and distract them from the road ahead. Geofencing technologies such as the new Ford system can help drivers stay focused.

“Our drivers should benefit from the latest technical support, including geofencing based assistant systems that enable them to keep to the speed limits and fully concentrate on the road,” said Dr Bert Schröer of AWB, a Cologne waste disposal company involved in the trial.

10 things you need to know direct to your inbox every weekday. Sign up for the Daily Brief, Silicon Republic’s digest of essential sci-tech news.

Source link

Continue Reading

Technology

Pushing Buttons: Why linking real-world violence to video games is a dangerous distraction | Games

Voice Of EU

Published

on

Welcome to Pushing Buttons, the Guardian’s gaming newsletter. If you’d like to receive it in your inbox every week, just pop your email in below – and check your inbox (and spam) for the confirmation email.

Sign up for Pushing Buttons, our weekly guide to what’s going on in video games.

Remember how, in the wake of yet more awful shootings in the US this month, Fox News decided to blame video games rather than, you know, the almost total absence of meaningful gun control? Remember how I said last week that the video-games-cause-violence “argument” was so mendacious and nakedly manipulative that I wasn’t going to dignify it with a response?

Well, here I am, responding, because the supposed link between video games and real-life violence is one of the most persistent myths that I’ve encountered over the course of my career, and it has an interesting (if also infuriating) history.

Many video games have violent content, just as many films and TV series have violent content (and of course many books, as anyone who has endured a Bret Easton Ellis novel will attest). And it makes intuitive sense that the interactivity of games – especially shooting games – might appear more troubling, from the outside, than passive media such as film. (I gotta say, though, that in 25 years of playing video games I have never seen a scene as violent or upsetting as, say, a Quentin Tarantino movie.)

But the idea that exposure to these violent games turns people into killers in real life is comprehensively false – and it deflects attention from the actual drivers of real-world violence, from inequality to access to firearms to online radicalisation. It is a very politically motivated argument, and one that makes me instantly suspicious of the person wielding it. The NRA, for instance, trots it out on the regular. Donald Trump, inciter of actual real-life violent riots, was fond of it too. Why might that be, I wonder?

First, the facts: there is no scientifically credible link between video games and real-life violence. A lot of the studies around this issue are, in a word, bad – small sample sizes, lab conditions that have no relation to how people engage with games in the real world – but the best we have show either no link at all between violent games and violent thoughts or behaviour, or a positive correlation so minuscule as to be meaningless. A review of the science in 2020, which looked at and re-evaluated 28 global studies of video games and violence, found no cumulative harm, no long-term effect, and barely even any short-term effect on aggression in the real world. It concluded that the “long-term impacts of violent games on youth aggression are near zero”.

This seems self-evident: video games have been a part of popular culture for at least 50 years, since Pong, and violent games have existed in some form since Space Invaders, though they’ve gotten more visually realistic over time. If video games were in some way dangerous – if they significantly affected our behaviour, our emotional responses – you would expect to have seen widespread, cross-cultural changes in how we act. That is demonstrably not the case. Indeed, overall, violent crime has been decreasing for more than 20 years, the exact period of time during which games have become ubiquitous. Though it would be unscientific to credit video games with that effect, you would think that if the generations of people who’ve now played Doom or Call of Duty or Grand Theft Auto were warped by it, we might be seeing some evidence of that by now.

It is true that some perpetrators of mass murders – such as the Columbine shooters – were fans of video games. But given that the great majority of teenagers are fans of video games, that doesn’t mean much. More often than a fixation on violent media – of all kinds – mass shooters display an obsession with weapons or explosives or real-life killers, an interest in extremist views, social ostracisation. These are not otherwise well-adjusted people suddenly compelled to real-world violence by a game, or a film, or a Marilyn Manson album.

The history of the “video games cause violence” argument goes back even further than video games themselves: it’s an extension of the panic that flares up whenever a new and supposedly morally abject form of youth culture emerges. In the 1940s, when New York’s mayor ordered 2,000 pinball machines to be seized so that he could performatively smash them up, it was arcades; during the satanic panic of the 1980s and beyond, it was metal music. Since the mid to late 90s, it’s been video games, and no amount of studies debunking any link between them and real-world violence seems to make a difference.

So why does this argument keep showing up? In short: because it’s an easy scapegoat that ties into older generations’ instinctive wariness of technology, screen time and youth culture, and it greatly benefits institutions like the NRA and pro-gun politicians to have a scapegoat. Whenever video games are implicated in a violent event, there is usually stunning hypocrisy on display. After the El Paso shooting in 2019, Walmart removed violent video game displays from its stores – but continued to sell actual guns. Fox News, the TV network that platforms Tucker Carlson and the great replacement theory with him, is happy to point out that the perpetrator of a mass shooting played video games, while remaining oddly quiet on the racist ideas that show up in these shooters’ manifestos.

I’m not saying that we shouldn’t examine video game violence at all, or question it. Does every game that involves sneaking up on enemies need a gratuitous neck-breaking animation when you succeed in overpowering a guard? Why do games so often resort to violence as the primary method of interaction with a virtual world? Do we really need more violent media – couldn’t we be playing something more interesting than another military shooter? These are valid and interesting questions. But they have nothing to do with real-world violence.

What to play

‘The most interesting anti-violent video game I’ve played’. This week, we recommend 2015’s Undertale
‘The most interesting anti-violent video game I’ve played’. This week, we recommend 2015’s Undertale Photograph: Toby Fox

Back in 1994, video game magazine Edge ended its review of Doom with this infamous line: “If only you could talk to these creatures, then perhaps you could try and make friends with them, form alliances… Now that would be interesting.” Nearly 30 years later, “talk to the monsters” jokes and memes still crop up, even if nobody remembers where it originally came from.

Turns out that reviewer had a point, though, as proved by 2015’s Undertale, probably the most interesting anti-violent video game I’ve played. In this lo-fi role-playing game, you get into fights with plenty of monsters, but instead of battering them into submission you can win them over by talking them down and showing them mercy, which is often the more difficult option. In most games, there’s no question about what you do when a monster turns up in your path: this one makes you interrogate yourself. I interpreted it at the time as social commentary on pacifism and community, and looking back, I don’t think that was too much of an overreach.

Available on: PC, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch
Approximate play time: 6-10 hours

What to read

  • I’m going to start with a book this time: Lost in a Good Game: Why We Play Video Games and What They Can Do For Us, by Pete Etchells. A researcher and lecturer in biological psychology, Etchells’ perspective on video games is both relatable and extremely well-informed. He looks at the evidence (or lack of evidence) behind all the most pervasive beliefs about video games, and in the end he makes the case that most of the effects that they have on individuals and society are actually positive. It’s a reassuring read that I often recommend to worried parents who don’t play games themselves.

  • Grand Theft Auto V, perhaps the poster child for morally bankrupt video games that supposedly corrupt the youth, has now sold 165 million copies, following its launch on PS5 and Xbox Series X earlier this year. This makes it one of the most popular entertainment products of all time in any medium, and yet strangely, in the nine years since it was released, we have not seen the emergence of roving gangs of teenagers looking to act out their chaotic GTA Online shootouts in real life. Funny that.

What to click

Gibbon: Beyond the Trees review – short, simple and lovely to play

Activision Blizzard’s Raven Software workers vote to form industry’s first union

Question Block

Will return next week. If you have anything you’d like me to answer, just email me on pushingbuttons@theguardian.com!

Source link

Continue Reading

Trending

Subscribe To Our Newsletter

Join our mailing list to receive the latest news and updates 
directly on your inbox.

You have Successfully Subscribed!