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The giganotosaurus: What was the new ‘Jurassic Park’ villain like in real life? | Science & Tech

Few things are known for certain about the largest predator of the Late Cretaceous period. Its teeth were large, sharp and curved like swords. It was 13 meters long and weighed seven tons. And it moved confidently – at no more than 40 kilometers per hour – through South America more than 97 million years ago. It is none other than Giganotosaurus carolinii, the largest carnivore known to date and the new villain of Jurassic World Dominion, the latest film in the Jurassic Park saga.

History and legend are intertwined in the story of Giganotosaurus carolinii. The fossils of the dinosaur species were found in the Patagonian province of Neuquén in Argentina in 1993, the same year that Steven Spielberg’s hit movie Jurassic Park was released. The fossils were discovered by Rubén Carolini, a mechanic who was fond of paleontology, for whom the species was named after. Today, the 78-year-old is delighted that his discovery has made it to the big screen, although he regrets the movie was not made by an Argentine producer. “It is something that cannot be explained. I feel happy, it is very important at a scientific level and unique in the world,” he says from Neuquén. As a film buff, he hopes to have an active role in a similar project. “There’s still time,” he says.

The discovery of the Giganotosaurus carolinii changed the fate of Villa El Chocón, the village where it was discovered. At that time, many villagers were leaving due to the privatization of the state hydroelectric plant, which was the main source of work for the inhabitants. The discovery of the fossils brought archaeologists and tourists to the village, stopping the exodus in its track. The Giganotosaurus may be the villain in Jurassic World Dominion, but he is a hero to the people of Neuquén.

“Bigger! Why do they always have to go bigger?” exclaims Doctor Ian Malcolm in Jurassic World Dominion, upon seeing the Giganotosaurus carolinii for the first time. In truth, the dinosaur wasn’t much bigger than Tyrannosaurus rex, the previous villain of the Jurassic Park movies. The femur of the Giganotosaurus carolinii is barely two centimeters longer than that of T Rex. The big difference is in the teeth. Leonardo Salgado, one of the paleontologists who described the species in a 1995 article in Nature, remembers his shock at comparing the two species. “In 1994, we took the find [of Giganotosaurus] to an international congress in the United States and when we saw the original skull of the Tyrannosaurus rex we were impressed by the teeth, by their robustness. They looked like bananas. Very different from those of Giganotosaurus carolinii which are very long, slightly curved and quite flat.” Salgado is a researcher at the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (Conicet) in Argentina and works at the University of Río Negro.

When asked about how realistic was the portrayal of Giganotosaurus carolinii in Jurassic World Dominion, Salgado had mixed opinions. In the prologue for the new film, the giganotosaurus is seen fighting a T Rex, something which is scientifically impossible, says Salgado. The two species were not located in the same area, nor did they coexist at the same moment of time. One lived 70 million years ago in North America and the other, 100 million years ago in the south of the continent. “They are 30 million years apart. They never would have crossed paths,” says Salgado. In the prologue, a mosquito bites T Rex after he dies in the fight with the giganotosaurus and the DNA from the blood is used to clone the predator. This is also unfeasible, says Rodolfo Coria, the lead author of the Nature article. He explains that it is rare for mosquitoes to bite cold-blooded animals, such as dinosaurs. “The blood that the mosquito sucks when it bites is not to feed itself, but to warm up and incubate its eggs. That’s why it is the female who bites. This blood undergoes modifications in the body of the mosquito that would prevent the chromosome needed for cloning from being preserved. So the idea that you can make a clone from blood sucked by a mosquito doesn’t hold up. It’s a biological mistake.” Coria suggests a more plausible narrative. “It would have been easier to use current projects based on non-fossilized organic matter, such as those in Montana, United States, where there are preserved collagen cells in tyrannosaurs.”

Almost everything that is known about Giganotosaurus carolinii is known from its holotype, the first specimen found, on which basis the species is determined. With the exception of a fragment of the lower jaw found in the same area, there are no other fossils of the gigantosaurus. As a result, many of the conclusions about the dinosaur are supported by studies of other species of the same Carcharodontosauridae family. Conicet paleontologist Juan Canale is an expert in this group of dinosaurs and works in the Ernesto Bachmann museum, in Villa El Chocón, where the holotype of the Giganotosaurus carolinii is exhibited. For him, the Jurassic World Dominion has done a reasonably good job at recreating the physical appearance of the Giganotosaurus carolinii. “The eyebrows, the bumps above the eyes correlate with the bones. In general, all Carcharodontosauridae have facial bones that are quite ornate with ridges, grooves and bumps. This suggests that the skin would have been quite attached to the bones in that area. However, the [fossils] do not have a crown. Some artistic license was taken.”

The movie portrays T Rex and Gigantosaurus carolinii with different physical features so it is easy to differentiate the two. But it does not show how the two had very different teeth, even though this is the biggest difference between them. “The teeth of the giganotosaurus are similar to knives, while those of the tyrannosaurus are similar to bananas,” says Coria. “They are adapted to cut meat and eventually kill, but not to break bones,” adds Salgado. “While T.rex could have broken a bone with a bite.”

An image of the gigantosaurus from the Jurassic Park movie. Scientists agree that the dinosaur would have had ornate facial features.
An image of the gigantosaurus from the Jurassic Park movie. Scientists agree that the dinosaur would have had ornate facial features.Universal

The researchers also question the fight between the gigantosaurus and T.rex, and not just because it was geographically and historically impossible. In the prologue to the movie, one of the scientists says: “Put two predators together and after a while, there will be only one.” But there is no scientific evidence of territorial disputes between dinosaurs, says Salgado. “What the film doesn’t convince me of is that two carnivores would fight each other, for no apparent reason.” Particularly since they would not have had anyone to fight against. “In its era, T.Rex outpowered everyone,” says Salgado, who adds that the image of the blood-thirsty predator is also wrong. “No animal kills all the time. Predators hunt when they have to hunt. If an animal comes across them at a time when they don’t need to hunt, they won’t hunt it,” he explains. For Salgado, it’s important that this be addressed when teaching students about animals. “In childhood, there is still this idea that those who eat meat are bad and those who eat plants are good. They are all equally good and bad. We can’t attribute these qualities to them. Territorial disputes between animals – unlike human ones – do not usually end in death,” he says. “If this wasn’t the case, no one would survive.” Salgado says that a predator may attack if it felt threatened, but not in order to kill. “We understand very well that it is a movie and that the dinosaur has to be scary, but that does not mean that it was like that,” he says.

Another thing Jurassic World Dominion gets wrong is the habitat. A dense jungle would have been very uncomfortable for the big carnivores. The giganotosaurus, in real life, lived in a kind of savannah. Given its huge size, it would have been difficult for it to pass unnoticed in the thick vegetation and capture smaller, faster prey. The researchers believe that neither species were exclusively hunters, but instead alternated with carrion, according to the availability of food.

The Giganotosaurus carolinii is still a mystery: researchers only have 70% of a complete skeleton and just a fraction of another. Salgado is hopeful that the new Jurassic Park movie will inspire more people to investigate the dinosaur. “It’s great for us that they have included our dinosaur,” he says. “It shows the interest that was generated with the findings in this area. But more people have to come, more researchers and more complete remains and more preserved parts need to appear if we are to find out more.”

The inclusion of Giganotosaurus carolinii in one of Hollywood’s biggest movie sagas could prompt new interest in the species in the same way that the 1993 film ushered in a golden age of dinosaurs.

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Top 10 Urban Property Hotspots

Bradford And Blackpool Lead The Pack

Bradford is the top urban property hotspot for the second consecutive quarter, exclusive data from OnTheMarket reveals.

A combination of affordable house prices and growing number of buyers being priced out of nearby Leeds is helping lift Bradford’s property market, OnTheMarket said.

Speaking to This is Money, Robert McCarthy, manager of Hunters estate agency in Bradford, said buyers were attracted to the area because properties are ‘dirt cheap.’

Hotspots: Bradford is the top urban property hotspot for the second consecutive quarter, data reveals
Hotspots: Bradford is the top urban property hotspot for the second consecutive quarter, data reveals

He said: ‘Bradford is seeing a high increase in first time buyers and investors, with properties ranging from around £70,000 for a two bedroomed terrace, £110,000-£130,000 for a three to four bedroom terrace and £120,000 to £240,000 for a three bedroom semi-detached or detached property.

‘This gives a buyer much more for their money, while keeping the mortgage payments lower.’

He added: ‘This week we had a three bedroom semi-detached property go on the market needing some work at £100,000.

‘We we had over 90 requests to view, with some buyers offering before a viewing at well over the asking price.

‘I personally bought a three bedroom semi-detached renovation project in the area with a large garden for £51,000 a few years ago.

‘Now fully renovated, if I was selling to put it on the market it would be around £180,000 to £190,000.’

Mr McCarthy told This is Money that it was possible to buy a one or two bedroom flat in the centre of Bradford for between £20,000 to £60,000.

Urban property hotspots

Blackpool, Rochdale and Plymouth came in second, third and fourth place respectively in OnTheMarket’s latest rankings, with Rochdale climbing from 23rd to third place.

As cities like Manchester become increasingly expensive, Rochdale has ballooned in popularity with buyers.

Andrew Cardwell, manging director of Cardwells Estate Agents, said he wasn’t surprised about Rochdale’s colossal climb in the rankings.

Ample space: The property in Bradford is link detached and perfect for families
Ample space: The property in Bradford is link detached and perfect for families
Time to eat: The dining room in this Bradford property is chic and modern

Time to eat: The dining room in this Bradford property is chic and modern

Outdoor space: the property has a low maintenance garden perfect for entertaining
Outdoor space: the property has a low maintenance garden perfect for entertaining

He said: ‘Earlier this year Rochdale was recognised as one of the most affordable places to buy a property, with an average house price of around £206,000.

‘As well as offering excellent value for money, it’s within easy reach of Manchester city centre and has beautiful countryside.’

Plymouth jumped from 22nd to fourth place in the rankings. It is the only southern location to make it to the top five, OnTheMarket said.

Plymouth is home to HMNB Devonport, the largest naval base in western Europe and the city is brimming with shops and restaurants.

Jacob Tebb, president of OnTheMarket, told This is Money: ‘Property buying decisions continue to be heavily influenced by affordability, according to our latest hotspots index, which reveals that some of the most active or “hottest” areas also offer buyers the best value.”

He added: ‘Overall, the north/south divide is holding firm, with some of the most vibrant and cheapest locations in the north seeing the most heat in terms of housing market activity and only one southern location making it into the top ten.’

Leicester, Stoke-on-Trent, Swindon, Sunderland, Wakefield and Derby also made it to the top ten, while Middlesborough, Burnley and Coventry were just outside the top 10.

Wakefield rose from thirtieth to ninth place, while Birmingham climbed from forty-third to twenty-third place.

Where is the market cooling? Urban property hotspots

OnTheMarket added: ‘Moving in the other direction, demand in Wigan cooled significantly, dropping from second to fifteenth place in our rankings, while Liverpool has fallen from eleventh place in the first quarter to thirtieth.

‘Worthing, one of the few southern locations to be considered a hotspot, fell from twentieth to fifty-third place. The “coolest” hotspot on our list is Brighton.’

The average price of a house in Brighton and Hove was £422,000 in April, according to the Office for National Statistics. Its coastal location and proximity to London makes it popular but expensive with buyers.

Activity in Gloucester, Norwich and Warrington is also cooling, OnTheMarket said.

How is the London property market faring?

OnTheMarket crunched separate data for the London property market. The data suggested there has been ‘less fluctuation nationally and very little movement’, On The Market said.

Within the London-focused rankings, Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Sutton, Redbridge and Newham comprised the top five, followed by Bexley, Hillingdon and Enfield. Hounslow and Croydon also made it to the top 10.

However, Hounslow dropped out of the top five London hotspots in the quarter, while Lambeth, Southwark and Merton all fell four places.

In the last few years, higher mortgage rates have put a dampener on the property market. However, the Bank of England is expected to cut interest rates this summer and some banks and building societies have already started trimming rates on their mortgage deals.

Barclays recently upped the ante in the mortgage price war currently playing out between banks and building societies.

The mortgage lender cut rates by up to 0.33 percentage points across a wide range of deals for both homebuyers and those remortgaging, resulting in several new best-buys.

Halifax also announced it was cutting mortgage rates by up to 0.13 percentage points on selected deals.

What’s on sale now?

1. Three-bed semi-detached house, Bradford, £190,000

This three-bedroom semi-detached house at Hopefield Way, Bierley in Bradford, is on sale via Hunters estate agency for £190,000.

It has a light and airy living room and a spacious kitchen-diner. The property has gardens at the front and rear and comes with one driveway parking space.

Bargain: This three-bed semi-detached home on sale via Hunters could be yours for £190,000
Bargain: This three-bed semi-detached home on sale via Hunters could be yours for £190,000
Chill time: The semi-detached house in Hopefield Way, Bierley, is light and airy inside
Chill time: The semi-detached house in Hopefield Way, Bierley, is light and airy inside
Culinary delights: The Bradford property comes equipped with a spacious kitchen-diner
Culinary delights: The Bradford property comes equipped with a spacious kitchen-diner
Relax: One of the three bedrooms on offer at the property in Bradford
Relax: One of the three bedrooms on offer at the property in Bradford

2. Two-bed flat, Plymouth, £220,000

Plush: This spacious two-bed flat in Plymouth is on sale via Julian Marks for £220,000
Plush: This spacious two-bed flat in Plymouth is on sale via Julian Marks for £220,000
Features: The period features at the two-bed flat in Plymouth are clear to see
Features: The period features at the two-bed flat in Plymouth are clear to see
All the mod cons: The Plymouth flat comes equipped with a newly fitted pristine kitchen
All the mod cons: The Plymouth flat comes equipped with a newly fitted pristine kitchen
Space: The Plymouth flat has a small private garden and communal grounds
Space: The Plymouth flat has a small private garden and communal grounds

This two-bedroom ground floor flat on sale via Julian Marks is set in a substantial end of terrace late Victorian-era property and is listed for £220,000.

The newly fitted kitchen is modern and stylish, and elsewhere charming period features have been retained.

The property has been owned by the same people since 1994 and comes with use of a small private garden, as well as a communal garden.

3. Four-bed house, Rochdale, £325,000

Ideal: This four-bed detached house on sale via Hunters could be yours for £325,000
Ideal: This four-bed detached house on sale via Hunters could be yours for £325,000
Family hub: The living room in this Rochdale property is spacious and calming
Family hub: The living room in this Rochdale property is spacious and calming
Ready to go: The property in Milnrow, Rochdale, is in turn key condition
Ready to go: The property in Milnrow, Rochdale, is in turn key condition

This four-bedroom detached property located in Milnrow, Rochdale, is on sale via Hunters for £325,000.

The house is in mint condition throughout with light and airy rooms. A family could move straight into this home without needing to lift a finger. There’s off-road parking, a single garage and gardens to the front and rear.

It’s an ideal property for a growing family.


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Culture

Assessing Property Size: What Square Footage Can You Get With The Average UK House Price In Your Area?

Assessing Property Size In The UK

In the United Kingdom, there is a prevailing tendency to gauge the size of residences based on the number of bedrooms rather than square footage. In fact, research indicates that three out of five individuals are unaware of the square footage of their property.

However, a comprehensive analysis conducted by ‘Savills’ reveals significant variations in property sizes throughout the country. For instance, with the average property price standing at £340,837, this amount would typically afford a studio flat spanning 551 square feet in London, according to the prominent estate agency.

Conversely, in the North East region, the same sum would secure a spacious five-bedroom house measuring 1,955 square feet, nearly four times the size of a comparable property in London.

Best value: Heading to the North East of England is where buyers will get the most from their money

In Scotland, the median house price equates to a sizable investment capable of procuring a generous four-bedroom residence spanning 1,743 square feet. Conversely, in Wales, Yorkshire & The Humber, and the North West, this sum affords a slightly smaller four-bedroom dwelling of approximately 1,500 square feet, while in the East and West Midlands, it accommodates a 1,300 square foot home. In stark contrast, within the South West, £340,837 secures a modest 1,000 square foot property, and in the East, an even more confined 928 square feet.

London presents the most challenging market, where this budget offers the least purchasing power. Following closely, the South East allows for 825 square feet of space or a medium-sized two-bedroom dwelling. Lucian Cook, head of residential research at Savills, emphasizes the profound disparity in purchasing potential across Britain, ranging from compact studio flats in London to spacious four or five-bedroom residences in parts of North East England.

While square footage serves as a critical metric, with a significant portion of Britons unfamiliar with their property’s dimensions, the number of bedrooms remains a traditional indicator of size. Personal preferences, such as a preference for larger kitchens, may influence property selection. For those prioritizing ample space, Easington, County Durham, offers a substantial 2,858 square foot, five-bedroom home, while Rhondda, Wales, and Na h-Eileanan an Iar, Scotland, provide 2,625 and 2,551 square feet, respectively. Conversely, in St Albans, Hertfordshire, £340,837 secures a mere 547 square feet, equivalent to a one-bedroom flat.

The disparity continues in central London, where purchasing power diminishes considerably. In Kensington, the budget accommodates a mere 220 square feet, contrasting with the slightly more spacious 236 square feet in Westminster. Conversely, in Dagenham, the same investment translates to 770 square feet. Three properties currently listed on Rightmove exemplify the diversity within this price range across the UK market.

South of the river: This semi-detached house is located near to three different train stations

South of the river: This semi-detached house is located near to three different train stations

2. Lewisham: One-bed house, £345,000

This one-bedroom property in Lewisham, South London, is on the market for £345,000.

The semi-detached house is set over two floors, and has a private patio.

The property is located near to bus links and amenities, as well as Catford train station.

Edinburgh fringe: This three-bed property is located on the edge of the city, near to the town of Musselburgh

Edinburgh fringe: This three-bed property is located on the edge of the city, near to the town of Musselburgh

3. Edinburgh: Three-bed house, £350,000

This three-bedroom detached house in Edinburgh could be yours for £350,000.

The house, which has a two-car driveway, boasts a large kitchen diner, and is within easy reach of Newcriaghall train station.


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Top 10 Florida Cities Dominate The Business Startup Landscape In The U.S.

Top 10 Florida Cities And Business Startup Landscape In The U.S.

The Voice Of EU | Florida emerges as a hub for entrepreneurial endeavors, with its vibrant business landscape and conducive environment for startups. Renowned for its low corporate tax rates and a high concentration of investors, the Sunshine State beckons aspiring entrepreneurs seeking fertile grounds to launch and grow their businesses.

In a recent report by WalletHub, Florida cities dominate the list of the top 10 best destinations for business startups, showcasing their resilience and economic vitality amidst challenging times.

From Orlando’s thriving market to Miami’s dynamic ecosystem, each city offers unique advantages and opportunities for entrepreneurial success. Let’s delve into the chronologically listed cities that exemplify Florida’s prominence in the business startup arena.

1. Orlando Leads the Way: Orlando emerges as the most attractive market in the U.S. for business startups, with a remarkable surge in small business establishments. WalletHub’s latest report highlights Orlando’s robust ecosystem, fostering the survival and growth of startups, buoyed by a high concentration of investors per capita.

2. Tampa Takes Second Place: Securing the second spot among large cities for business startups, Tampa boasts a favorable business environment attributed to its low corporate tax rates. The city’s ample investor presence further fortifies startups, providing essential resources for navigating the initial years of business operations.

3. Charlotte’s Diverse Industries: Claiming the third position, Charlotte stands out for its diverse industrial landscape and exceptionally low corporate taxes, enticing companies to reinvest capital. This conducive environment propels entrepreneurial endeavors, contributing to sustained economic growth.

4. Jacksonville’s Rising Profile: Jacksonville emerges as a promising destination for startups, bolstered by its favorable business climate. The city’s strategic positioning fosters entrepreneurial ventures, attracting aspiring business owners seeking growth opportunities.

5. Miami’s Entrepreneurial Hub: Miami solidifies its position as a thriving entrepreneurial hub, attracting businesses with its dynamic ecosystem and strategic location. The city’s vibrant startup culture and supportive infrastructure make it an appealing destination for ventures of all sizes.

6. Atlanta’s Economic Momentum: Atlanta’s ascent in the business startup landscape underscores its economic momentum and favorable business conditions. The city’s strategic advantages and conducive policies provide a fertile ground for entrepreneurial ventures to flourish.

7. Fort Worth’s Business-Friendly Environment: Fort Worth emerges as a prime destination for startups, offering a business-friendly environment characterized by low corporate taxes. The city’s supportive ecosystem and strategic initiatives facilitate the growth and success of new ventures.

8. Austin’s Innovation Hub: Austin cements its status as an innovation hub, attracting startups with its vibrant entrepreneurial community and progressive policies. The city’s robust infrastructure and access to capital foster a conducive environment for business growth and innovation.

9. Durham’s Emerging Entrepreneurship Scene: Durham’s burgeoning entrepreneurship scene positions it as a promising destination for startups, fueled by its supportive ecosystem and strategic initiatives. The city’s collaborative culture and access to resources contribute to the success of new ventures.

10. St. Petersburg’s Thriving Business Community: St. Petersburg rounds off the top 10 with its thriving business community and supportive ecosystem for startups. The city’s strategic advantages and favorable business climate make it an attractive destination for entrepreneurial endeavors.

Despite unprecedented challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Great Resignation, and high inflation, these top Florida cities remain resilient and well-equipped to overcome obstacles, offering promising opportunities for business owners and entrepreneurs alike.


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