Tidal energy could be a game-changer for a greener, more sustainable economy as the EU moves towards a target of 40-percent renewables in its overall energy mix by 2030.
It could deliver 100 GW of capacity by 2050 – equivalent to 10 percent of Europe’s electricity consumption today.
European grants – including Horizon 2020 grants – have been instrumental in moving the needle forward in tidal energy research, and now the technology has reached fruition.
The next step is scaling up the prototype platforms so that tidal energy can become commercially viable and enter the energy grid in a meaningful way.
There’s just one hitch in this plan: cost.
Tidal energy is the new kid on the block in terms of the renewable energy market. All types of energy production require significant financial backing, but tidal energy companies are running into problems when they ask for support to scale-up.
Traditional funders, like banks, are either unwilling to invest at all, or else offer sky-high interest rates on their loans, making it commercial nonsense for tidal energy companies to accept. No bank seems to want to be the first one to give tidal energy the green light, only to see the scale-up efforts flop.
“It’s really about the promise that this industry will take off and reach some maturity,” said Jan Cornellie, project leader of the Clean Energy for EU Islands secretariat.
“At the moment, I think that’s also why the banks remain sitting on the fence – to see whether it’s really going to happen.”
To get off the ground, tidal companies need national governments to introduce revenue support schemes, guaranteed prices and decent bank loan rates.
According to Rémi Gruet of Ocean Energy Europe, “At national level we really need guaranteed prices to be put on the table. This is the way we developed wind and solar and there is no other way that we can do tidal. You can’t just ask a new technology to go and compete against an old technology. Especially when all the other energy sectors are subsidised.”
It comes at a time when rising energy prices are making headlines all across Europe. An over-reliance on wind power and gas has led to fierce price hikes. It’s something that could be alleviated if tidal energy was on the table, Gruet says.
“Having an additional flexible energy (ocean energy) on the grid will smoothen the peaks and lows of production and thus make matching demand easier. In times of high energy prices it means that ocean energy will lower overall costs of electricity as you need to resort much less often to expensive and pollution ‘peakers’ (plants you only use when you have a spike in consumption – mostly gas at the moment unless the country has access to hydro dams).”
The big advantage that tidal energy has over other renewable energy sources is that it is entirely predictable. Wind and solar energy rely heavily on the weather – when the wind stops blowing or the sun goes behind a cloud, no energy is produced.
But tidal energy relies on the gravitational pull of the moon on the earth, something that’s not likely to change anytime soon.
That’s part of the reason why it’s so attractive to innovators like Orbital Marine Power. They’ve designed a unique type of floating platform that consists of a cylindrical tube with the turbines on two retractable legs underneath the water. The advantage of the retractable legs is that they can be lifted up with hydraulics up onto the sea surface, which facilitates repairs much more easily, thereby cutting costs.
“For a competing technology that has turbines on the seabed, they’re going to need a heavyweight vessel to go down to retrieve the turbines if they needed to be repaired. That could cost up to £100,000 [€117,000] a day,” says James Murray, programme manager at Orbital.
“For our vessels, doing repairs might cost up to £5,000 per day. It’s a much lower risk, because everything is so much more accessible, and those retractable legs are a big part of that.”
Nova Innovation, which operates in Scotland and France, is another innovative company that is bringing down the costs of tidal power through new innovations. Nova’s turbine doesn’t require a gearbox, for instance.
“Fewer moving parts enhance [the turbine’s] reliability and extend the period between maintenance intervals from one year to two years – further cutting the cost of energy. The direct drive turbine is more efficient and more reliable,” says John Meagher, director of business innovation at Nova Innovation. “The M100-D turbine has lowered tidal energy costs by 30 percent.”
Reducing costs in this way should make the technology more attractive to financial institutions like banks, but so far that hasn’t been the case. Although costs for scaling up tidal energy projects are not particularly high compared to other energy projects, banks still seem to be nervous of tidal energy.
“It’s going to be €100m, but for a bank €100m for an energy project is not that much. To give you an idea, if you want to build a wind farm today it’s going to cost you anywhere between one million and one billion,” says Gruet.
“The issue is really not the size of the project. It’s that the technology attached is a technology that the banks don’t know.”
Italy using anti-mafia laws to scapegoat migrant boat drivers, report finds | Global development
Italian police have arrested more than 2,500 migrants for smuggling or aiding illegal immigration since 2013, often using anti-mafia laws to bring charges, according to the first comprehensive analysis of official data on the criminalisation of refugees and asylum seekers in Italy.
The report by three migrant rights groups has collected police data and analysed more than 1,000 criminal cases brought by prosecutors against refugees accused of driving vessels carrying asylum seekers across the Mediterranean.
The report by Arci Porco Rosso, the NGO Alarm Phone, and the nonprofit Borderline Sicilia, found evidence of police officers offering immigration papers and other incentives to migrants to persuade them to testify against the suspected boat drivers, who, in some cases were asylum seekers forced at gunpoint by traffickers to navigate refugee boats.
The NGOs claim the new evidence in the report confirms that Italy has spent decades pursuing a policy of criminalising asylum seekers, alleging prosecutors have been filling its prisons with innocent men used as scapegoats.
“We have examined over 1,000 court cases, spoken to hundreds of people involved,” the report stated. “We spoke to persons accused of boat driving, lawyers, judges and members of the police and coastguard, to reveal the full extent of Italy’s process of criminalising migration.”
Using police data and evidence presented in hundreds of court cases, the report revealed how refugees were targeted for prosecution.
Before sending a boat to Italy, from Libya, Tunisia, or Turkey, the report said smugglers often choose a migrant as a driver. This can be someone who does not have enough money to pay for the trip or with experience of navigation.
When the boat enters Italian waters, the authorities ask passengers to identify the driver, who is then arrested.
Boat drivers, who often come from war-torn countries, are accused of crimes, from illegally piloting migrant boats to the country, to trafficking in migrants, to criminal association. They can face sentences from 15 years to life in prison.
Although in several court cases judges have recognised the “state of necessity” – that the unlawful conduct is justified to protect the perpetrator or another person from imminent and serious danger – hundreds of cases are currently making their way through Italy’s legal system.
Since 2013, at least 24 people have received sentences of more than 10 years, while six have been given life sentences, according to the report.
“This happens when, unfortunately, during the journey, some of the passengers die,” said Maria Giulia Fava at Arci Porco Rosso. ‘‘In that case, the boat driver is charged with murder. It is in those moments that justice is transformed into a terrible machine that risks destroying the lives of these people forever.”
Four Libyan professional footballers were arrested in Sicily in 2015 and sentenced to 30 years after 49 people died during a sea crossing. The men’s families and friends said they were refugees fleeing the civil war to continue their careers in Germany and were forced to pilot the boat. Last year, Libyan warlord Gen Khalifa Haftar reportedly refused to release 18 Italian fishers accused of illegally fishing in Libyan territorial waters until Italy had freed the footballers. But the move was unsuccessful.
Italian prosecutors’ use of anti-mafia laws in the cases of migrant boat drivers, which the report said has been framed as a continuation of the country’s prolonged battle against organised crime, has led to hundreds of boat drivers facing draconian charges, such as criminal association.
Evidence in the report appears to show that in some instances police have offered incentives to migrants to identify those driving the boat as being part of smuggling operations.
“In one case a Nigerian witness told us that the police officers promised him that, by providing an accusatory statement [against a boat driver], he would be allowed to go to school and have a bed in a hostel,”, said the report. “Sometimes, the same thing happens with translators, who are asked by the authorities to find the boat drivers among the other passengers.”
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‘I was born a fighter’: the champion boxer changing young lives in Zimbabwe | Global development
Beneath a corrugated iron roof in the crowded Harare suburb of Mbare, a group of boys darts back and forth across a smooth concrete floor, firing a series of rapid punches into the air.
A wiry older man, dressed in low-slung tracksuit bottoms and flip-flops, watches their moves, encouraging them to “Jab! Jab! Jab!”.
It’s a long way from a glamorous black-tie occasion in Glasgow in January 1998, when Arifonso Zvenyika beat Scotland’s Paul Weir to take the Commonwealth flyweight title for Zimbabwe.
Nicknamed “Mosquito” – reflecting his 50kg fighting weight and his deadly skills – Zvenyika is one of the country’s most successful boxers.
However, there is little to show for those early triumphs. Now 45, Zvenyika lives hand to mouth, hustling like so many others in a country where up to 90% of working-age adults are not formally employed.
When he’s not struggling to put food on the table for his own family, he trains young people for nothing at the Mosquito Boxing School of Excellence.
“I grew up without anything – even now I don’t have anything, but I can share boxing with less privileged children,” says Zvenyika, who is proud to have been born and raised in Mbare.
“The champions always come from the ghetto,” he says.
Three times a week, up to 20 young people – aged from eight to their early 20s – gather for fitness training and to develop their technical skills.
Zvenyika says that he particularly focuses on boys and young men who struggle to remain in school and spend time on the streets.
“Some of the kids are totally poor and not even going to school. Some draw back from training as they don’t have shoes,” says Zvenyika.
One of the boys, 16-year-old Noel Sunday, says: “Both my parents are unemployed. I only did four years of school. I haven’t done my O-levels.”
A chalkboard in the gym reminds the young boxers to “Go hard or go home” and lists 10 rules. Eating, smoking and even laughing and jokes during sessions are prohibited.
“Boxing not only teaches discipline, but also positive values. It’s a low-cost, high-impact sport,” says David Mutambara, a former chair of Zimbabwe’s Sports and Recreation Commission.
“But there is a scarcity of resources in this country. We get people who have natural, raw talent. The skills development needed to polish that raw talent is lacking.”
Zvenyika is reliant on others to provide training space, and is constantly on the hunt for more equipment. The school is short of gloves, pads, punchbags and headgear.
The rest of the time he spends looking for work.
“I’m shy to say it, but I can’t afford to feed my family properly,” he says. “We eat bread without butter, we drink tea without milk.”
A few miles from the centre of Harare, Mbare is chaotic and densely populated. It’s a first stop for arrivals to the capital who come looking for work.
“My family makes money running around the marketplace and helping to carry people’s luggage,” says Tatenda Kachepa, 22, who has trained with Zvenyika for five years and is one of the club’s star boxers.
The pandemic pushed many people already struggling to earn a living into desperation.
“We are now 15 people living together at my father’s place,” says Kachepa, who is still trying to complete his schooling. “During Covid, we haven’t made any money. It’s been a dog-eat-dog situation.”
Substance abuse, already widespread in Harare’s low-income areas, has become more of a problem during the pandemic.
“I’ve been there myself,” says Zvenyika of his own drug-taking past. “It hurts me to see these young kids doping. I’m trying to find ways to stop them.”
Zvenyika’s story is a familiar one – from rags to riches, followed by a slide into bad choices and prison.
“My mother tried her best, but she didn’t have money to send me to school,” says Zvenyika, who turned professional at 17. “I took up boxing as something to resolve my pain and calm me down.”
After his talent took him to Zambia and Australia, as well as to Scotland, Zvenyika crashed back down to a very different reality.
Accused by a neighbour of stealing a radio – Zvenyika insists he was framed – in 2000, the boxing champion was sentenced to two and a half years in prison.
Although he continued to fight after his release, Zvenyika’s imprisonment – and a stroke while in jail – effectively ended his professional career.
“I’ve been in prison, in hospital, in a hooligan’s cell. I don’t want others to fall into that pit,” says Zvenyika. “I’m trying to move them to be good people.”
And he is confident that Mbare’s younger generation has sporting potential.
“People paint a bad picture of Mbare, but it’s a talent hub,” he says. “Young guys can get into bad things, but training keeps them busy.”
Strict lockdowns closed the club for much of the past 18 months, but as of last month Zvenyika has welcomed back his young students.
He is determined to keep the Mosquito boxing school open, despite the challenges.
“I was born a fighter and I’ll die a fighter,” he says. “Boxing might leave me, but I’ll never leave boxing.”
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