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Poverty in Spain: French perfumer ‘distils’ the scent of one of Seville’s poorest neighborhoods | Culture

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If, as the French perfumer Barnabé Fillion says, “a good perfume has the capacity to take you on a journey,” his latest creation, Jardines en el Aire (or Gardens in the Air), is a trip around the world that begins in one of Europe’s poorest neighborhoods, Tres Barrios-Amate in the Spanish city of Seville.

Fillion, a renowned scent designer who has worked with top brands like Aēsop, Paul Smith, and Comme des Garçons, recently collaborated in a multicultural project that has “distilled” some of the plants that grow around the run-down buildings in this underprivileged neighborhood where some of its 18,000 residents come from Asia, Africa and South America. Children from the neighborhood’s Candelaria Educational and Social Association worked on identifying and collecting the plants and sending them by mail to Fillion.

“This is a project about the evocation of a neighborhood which is defined by its diversity, experiences, testimonies and multiculturalism,” says Fillion, 39. “A neighborhood which is home to so many nationalities cannot be labeled as just one of the poorest in Spain. It has something to say about the world, its complexity and also its richness and the contemporary history of a country. Our approach has been to distil and produce the essence of empathy and cultural exchange.”

The perfume "Jardines en el aire" by Fillion.
The perfume “Jardines en el aire” by Fillion.LUCES DE BARRIO

The result is a unisex perfume that smells to Verónica Benítez, 15, “of the countryside;” to Juan Yameogo, 11, whose family hails from Burkina Faso, “of jasmine;” and to his brother Donald, 14, “of the corners of his neighborhood.”

They are just three of the 18 young people between the ages of eight and 16 who have participated in the Luces de Barrio (Neighborhood Lights) initiative launched by the City Council through Seville’s Institute of Culture and Arts (ICAS).

“The most complicated part of the process was finding the subtle balance between all the essences that best represent the cosmopolitan character of the neighborhood,” says Fillion.

Among the young participants, there are children from Morocco, the Netherlands, Ecuador and Colombia. Paula Bellido, 15, whose family is from Bolivia, was surprised by the number of different bird species in her neighborhood: 70, according to SEO Birdlife. Birds are the focus of another aspect of the project called Sinergias, a musical polyphony composed by Desirée Martín to celebrate the multiplicity of voices in Tres Barrios-Amate.

The overall aim is to make a role model out of Tres Barrios-Amate, which has high unemployment, drug dependency issues and the second-lowest per capita income in Spain (€5,389). According to the 2019 Urban Audit report, six of the 15 poorest neighborhoods in Spain are located in Seville. The list is headed by Polígono Sur, where the average annual income stands at €4,897. For Fillion, poverty needs to be fought as it reeks of “the indifference and contempt of a few people who are quick to stigmatize others.”

Sinergias, a musical polyphony by Desirée Martín, is also part of the project.
Sinergias, a musical polyphony by Desirée Martín, is also part of the project. LUCES DE BARRIO

Barnabé Fillion has based the perfume on the orange blossom from the bitter orange tree, of which there are 1,756 in the neighborhood, as well as on different incense aromas that remind him of the area. He has also used plants from five different continents, including the rose and rosemary (Europe), the cedar and the incense tree (Africa), the orange tree (Asia), the American pepper tree (America) and the red eucalyptus (Oceania). Their inclusion is a metaphor for the cultural diversity of this location, which lies to the east of the city and includes an urban park called Amate, which covers 32 hectares.

Jardines en el Aire has been produced by the Mane laboratories in Grasse, France, in a limited edition of just 333 bottles, which are being “given away” to those making a €50 to €100 donation to the art and nature workshops that will continue to be held by AES Candelaria. This makes it probably the cheapest perfume ever created by Fillion, whose career includes research with NASA to find out what the Moon smells like. “This perfume emanates from imagination and creativity and it leaves a fragrance that transmits ethical and ecological values,” says Fillion. “It is not a commercial product.”

According to the architect Sergio Rodríguez, curator of the Neighborhood Lights initiative and part of the Seville’s Nomad Garden collective along with architect Salas Mendoza and geographer Fran Pazos, “the whole project is an experiment to continue weaving an urban fabric that improves relations between species and so improves the general habitat. Despite the precarious living standards and the poor quality of housing, the neighborhood has a very cohesive social fabric and, despite the many different backgrounds, coexistence between people is not undermined.” Almost 8% of the 18,000 residents of Tres Barrios-Amate come from abroad, mostly Morocco, Romania and China.

Architects, geographers, urban planners, composers, musicians, instrument makers, designers, botanists, publicists, biologists and journalists have been working through the coronavirus pandemic since February 2020 on this ambitious project with a budget of €90,000. “The crisis has been a limitation, but also an incentive to create new realities,” says Rodríguez.

Neighborhood Lights includes a vertical garden at number 6 Candelilla Street that has converted 24 air conditioners into flower pots in which rosemary, asparagus, laurel, roses and jasmine grow while providing nesting spots for the birds in the area. “We take advantage of the water released by the air conditioners which, thanks to a motor, is stored in a tank on the roof of the building and then waters all the boxes,” explains Rodríguez. “It’s not just an ephemeral artistic project, but a prototype that we’re going to study in collaboration with the School of Architecture to see if it’s economically viable and can be developed further.”

English version by Heather Galloway.

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Brendan Kennelly, one the country’s most popular poets, dies aged 85

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Brendan Kennelly, one the country’s most popular poets and a former professor of English at Trinity College Dublin, has died. He was 85.

Family members confirmed his death on Sunday evening at Áras Mhuire nursing home, Listowel, in his native Co Kerry.

Mr Kennelly was born in Ballylongford, Co Kerry, in 1936, the son of Tim Kennelly, publican and garage proprietor, and his wife Bridie Ahern, a nurse.

He graduated from Trinity College, wrote his PhD thesis there, and went on to become professor of modern literature at the university.

Mr Kennelly had more than 30 poetry collections published, which captured the many shades and moods of his home county as well as his adopted Dublin home.

He was also a popular broadcaster and made many appearances on radio and television programmes, such as The Late Late Show.

[His poetry is] infused with the details and texture of life, its contradictions and moments of celebration including the wry experiences of football and politics

President Michael D Higgins, a friend of Mr Kennelly’s, said his poetry held “a special place in the affections of the Irish people”.

“As one of those who had the great fortune of enjoying the gift of friendship with Brendan Kennelly for many years, it is with great sadness that I have heard of his passing,” he said.

“As a poet, Brendan Kennelly had forged a special place in the affections of the Irish people. He brought so much resonance, insight, and the revelation of the joy of intimacy to the performance of his poems and to gatherings in so many parts of Ireland. He did so with a special charm, wit, energy and passion.”

He added that Mr Kennelly’s poetry is “infused with the details and texture of life, its contradictions and moments of celebration including the wry experiences of football and politics”.

Taoiseach Micheál Martin said the country has lost a “great teacher, poet, raconteur; a man of great intelligence and wit”.

He added: “The Irish people loved hearing his voice and reading his poetry.”

He spoke the language of the people. We loved his writing. His eloquence was masterful

Trinity College Dublin’s provost, Prof Linda Doyle, said Mr Kennelly was known to generations of Trinity students as a great teacher and as a warm and encouraging presence on campus.

“His talent for, and love of, poetry came through in every conversation as did his good humour. We have all missed him on campus in recent years as illness often kept him in his beloved Kerry. He is a loss to his much loved family, Trinity and the country,” she said.

Tony Guerin, a close friend of Kennelly’s, and a playwright, said he will be remembered in Kerry and elsewhere as “the people’s poet”.

“My relation with Brendan was one of friendship. There are more scholarly people who will assess his contribution and discuss those matters. But he spoke the language of the people. We loved his writing. His eloquence was masterful, whether it was the written word or being interviewed by Gay Byrne,” he said.

Mr Kennelly is survived by his brothers, Alan, Paddy and Kevin, by his sisters, Mary Kenny and Nancy McAuliffe, and his three grandchildren.

His daughter Doodle Kennelly died earlier this year.

Arrangements for a family funeral are expected to be announced shortly.

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New skeleton find could reveal more about Vesuvius eruption

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The remains of a man presumed to be aged 40-45 were found under metres of volcanic rock roughly where Herculaneum’s shoreline used to be, before Vesuvius’ explosion in 79 AD pushed it back by 500 metres (1,640 feet).   

He was lying down, facing inland, and probably saw death in the face as he was overwhelmed by the molten lava that buried his city, the head of the Herculaneum archaeological park, Francesco Sirano, told the ANSA news agency.

“He could have been a rescuer”, Sirano suggested.

As Vesuvius erupted, a naval fleet came to the rescue, led by the ancient Roman scholar and commander Pliny the Elder. He died on the shore, but it is believed that his officers managed to evacuate hundreds of survivors.

The skeleton might have otherwise belonged to “one of the fugitives” who was trying to get on one of the lifeboats, “perhaps the unlucky last one of a group that had managed to sail off,” Sirano suggested.

It was found covered by charred wood remains, including a beam from a building that may have smashed his skull, while his bones appear bright red, possibly blood markings left as the victim was engulfed in the volcanic discharge.

Archaeologists also found traces of tissue and metal objects — likely the remains of personal belongings he was fleeing with: maybe a bag, work tools, or even weapons or coins, the head of the archaeological park said.

Other human remains have been found in and around Herculaneum in the past decades — including a skull held in a Rome museum that some attribute to Pliny — but the latest discovery can be investigated with more modern techniques.

READ ALSO: Study finds 2,000-year-old brain cells of man killed in Vesuvius eruption

“Today we have the possibility of understanding more”, Sirano said.

Researchers believe that in Herculaneum temperatures rose up to 500 degrees — enough to vaporise soft tissues. In a phenomenon that is poorly understood, a rapid drop in temperature ensued, helping preserve what remained.

Although much smaller than Pompeii, its better-known neighbour outside the southern city of Naples, Herculaneum was a wealthier town with more exquisite architecture, much of which is still to be uncovered.

READ ALSO: Where are Italy’s active volcanoes?



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Lou Reed: The Velvet Underground: an inside look at the band that gave a voice to the outsiders | USA

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The importance of The Velvet Underground has been endlessly discussed. They are, with a nod to The Beatles, the modern rock group par excellence. Formed by Lou Reed and John Cale in New York in 1965, the band was immediately endorsed by Andy Warhol, with whom they would collaborate until 1967, although his influence would never leave them. The Velvet Underground were a sixties group that, during its five years of existence, failed to fit into their era for a single day. While others sung of love and good vibrations, they designed a revolutionary and perverse alternative for rock.

It was an alternative that remains valid to this day, half a century after the group was mortally wounded by the departure of Reed in August 1970. To corroborate this, Apple TV will premiere The Velvet Underground in October. Directed by Todd Haynes, the documentary is full of never-before-seen footage and interviews with people who were in the thick of it at the time, more than compensating for a dearth of movies about a band that can be described as legendary without fear of slipping into musical nepotism.

Lou Reed in ‘The Velvet Underground’ documentary.
Lou Reed in ‘The Velvet Underground’ documentary.

The documentary arrives in good company. At the end of September I’ll be your mirror: A tribute to The Velvet Underground & Nico was released, an album of cover versions of the group’s influential debut album when the line-up consisted of Reed, Cale, Sterling Morrison and Moe Tucker. A posthumous work by producer Hal Willner, who died of Covid-19 in 2020, it features contributions by Thurston Moore, Sharon van Etten, Iggy Pop, Kurt Vile, Courtney Barnett and Michael Stipe, among others.

Speaking about the original The Velvet Underground & Nico, released in 1967, Haynes said in an interview with Uncut magazine earlier this year that it is music that makes you think about how fragile identity is, and also about life. The journalist Susana Monteagudo concurs with Haynes. “The Velvet Underground were the first punk group in terms of transgression of codes and creative freedom,” says the author of books including Illustrated History of Rock and Amy Winehouse. Stranger than her. “As well as practicing the philosophy of do-it-yourself and rejecting the commercial course of the music industry, they subverted the establishment by making dissidence visible on every level, not just in artistic terms. They embraced the marginal and they were too nihilistic, cynical and sinister for the Flower Power era.”

The Velvet Underground did not belong to their time, but to the future. Cale wanted to fuse rock and roll with experimental music. Reed’s lyrics were open to the influence of writers like Burroughs, Delmore Schwartz and John Rechy. They were a loud and screeching band, but they also composed melodic songs. This contrast is most evident on The Velvet Underground & Nico, which contains some of the group’s most beautiful songs. I’ll be your mirror and Femme Fatale are sung by Nico (who also provides vocals on the chorus of Sunday morning, originally written for her but eventually sung by Reed), one of the most conflicting elements of the band.

For trans artist Roberta Marrero, Nico, the German model and singer who died in 1988, was an “icon of undisputable beauty, as well as being a pioneer who opened the door for other greats like Siouxsie.” In spite of her beauty, Nico did not fit the prevailing pop girl model of the time. Her singing style was far removed from traditional rock and openly reflected her Germanic and Gothic roots. Her inscrutable personality was married to a talent that after she left the Velvet Underground would manifest itself in unclassifiable works such as The marble index (1969), whose idiosyncrasy – tearing up the blueprint of pop music and exploring musical latitudes reserved for men – would inspire Kate Bush and Björk, as well as more contemporary artists such as Julia Holter, St Vincent and Anohni.

The Velvet Underground, clockwise from top left: Lou Reed, Sterling Morrison, John Cale, Moe Tucker and Nico.
The Velvet Underground, clockwise from top left: Lou Reed, Sterling Morrison, John Cale, Moe Tucker and Nico.

The Velvet Underground also broke with the heterosexual tradition of rock music. In Monteagudo’s view, in addition to creating a literary imagery “where there was room for homosexuals, trans women, prostitutes, junkies and outsiders in general,” they were also “a band not exclusively made up of males, and men who at the same time did not identify with a heteronormative masculinity, especially in the case of Lou Reed. They integrated and normalized diversity in their sphere because their way of life was linked to this concept. It was also the dawning of the ambiguous, the queer.” Marrero believes that “they brought non-normative sexualities to the forefront, such as sadism, more so than homosexuality. Although when I think about it, I’m waiting for my man could be talking about a gigolo and not a drug-dealer. In reality, it’s very ambiguous.”

This divorce from the prevailing canons also had a lot do with the presence of Maureen “Moe” Tucker. Her drum work with the band anticipated a trend that would not take hold until 1977, with the explosion of punk. From that point on, the female role in groups ceased to be principally pigeon-holed into certain instruments and roles. In Monteagudo’s opinion, Tucker is “a key element of this breaking of stereotypes and, as such, a figure to be held up by feminism. Her playing style, as unorthodox as it was influential, is one of those achievements that should be emphasized by the movement. Furthermore, her androgynous image and her discretion made her a counterpoint to Nico’s glamour.”

Revered by bands such as The Jesus and Mary Chain, who dedicated a song to her, and as Marrero asserts, a precursor to drummers such as Hannah Billie, formerly of Gossip, Tucker is, along with Cale, one of the survivors of the Velvet Underground’s original line-up. Due to her social media stance on Donald Trump and gun ownership, Tucker has also become the band’s least popular member.

Warhol’s influence was a determining factor behind The Velvet Underground developing such a peculiar personality. In the strictly musical sense, the band projected through their instruments some of the ideas on repetition, improvisation and saturation that the artist applied to his experimental movies. On the literary side, the people who frequented Warhol’s Factory left their mark on songs including That’s the story of my life (inspired by Billy Name, the Factory’s archivist) Femme fatale (inspired by the ‘it’ girl Edie Sedgwick) or the Reed-penned Candy says, which is about Candy Darling, an icon of the trans community.

“When Candy says was released in 1969 nothing changed,” says Marrero, “but I think it was a marvelous celebration of trans culture on the part of the group. It is one of my favorite songs. You have to read the lyrics in a historical context because all that stuff about being trans and hating your body is a discourse that is now quite outdated in our community.” Marrero also notes that, years later, Reed was in a relationship with a trans colleague, Rachel Humphries, the two sharing a “romantic relationship that was utterly silenced by the hetero-ciscentric music press.”

When he started his solo career Reed would again talk about Candy Darling and other trans actresses on Walk on the wild side, one of the hits on his acclaimed 1972 album Transformer, a record that finally delivered many of The Velvet Underground’s artistic ideas to a wider audience. By that time, David Bowie, Patti Smith, Suicide, Modern Lovers and New York Dolls we ready to do the group’s legacy justice.

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