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Pompeo Touts ‘Toughest’ GOP Sanctions Bill on Iran Amid Signs of Tentative Progress at Vienna Talks

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Amid ongoing Vienna talks to reactivate the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the Biden administration has been sending indications to Tehran that it may consider reducing punitive sanctions currently targeting Iran, the Wall Street Journal reported on Wednesday.

Former Secretary of State Mike Pompeo joined House Republicans on Wednesday for the unveiling of the “Maximum Pressure Act” – GOP legislation seeking to enact further sanctions on Iran while fettering President Joe Biden’s ability to roll back punitive restriction on Tehran.

“America, our ally, Israel and the world are safer because President Trump’s Maximum Pressure policy and crushing sanctions denied the Iranians the resources they needed to support building a nuclear weapon or to support terrorism around the globe,” Pompeo, who led a push for sanctions during the Donald Trump administration, said in a statement cited by Fox News.

Members of the Republican Study Committee, a conservative House GOP caucus led by Rep. Jim Banks, R-Ind., announced plans to introduce the 118-page legislation relating to Iran’s nuclear programme with the backing of 83 House Republicans.

Coming against the backdrop of ongoing Vienna talks between senior diplomats from the US, Iran, Germany, France, Russia, China and the European Union in a bid to chart a manner in which the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) can be fully restored, the bill seeks to forestall a US reentry into the 2015 Iran nuclear deal.

Amid signs of tentative progress in indirect talks between the US and Iran in Vienna, the proposed legislation would incorporate measures that would require any new deal with Tehran to be ratified by the Senate, while codifying into law sanctions introduced on Iran during the Trump-era.

Furthermore, the bill would expand sanctions, extending them to the Iran’s ballistic missile programme, the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and Iranian-backed militias elsewhere in the Middle East and a range of Iranian industries.

“This bill will do three things. It shows that Congress is not bound to agreements by the president that purports to speak on our behalf. Secondly it codifies the Trump administration’s maximum-pressure strategy until Iran meets the 12 demands laid out by former Secretary of State Mike Pompeo in May of 2018. And thirdly, it expands the existing, bipartisan Iran sanctions mandated by Congress, making it the toughest sanctions bill ever introduced in Congress on Iran,” said RSC chairman Jim Banks at a press conference on 21 April.

Pompeo, who served in the House from 2011 until joining the Trump administration in 2017, weighed in on the proposed legislation, saying that he had been “working on this issue with respect to Iran for an awfully long time”.

Underscoring that despite the Trump administration’s sanctions Tehran has continued to expand its nuclear programme, Pompeo stated:

“A pressure campaign — an effective one like we delivered — will continue to make the Iranians make difficult choices. Hard choices about whether to underwrite Hezbollah, underwrite the militias in Iraq… underwrite the Houthis… I’m proud of this legislation. It talks about the things that need to be done for Iran to rejoin the community of nations.”

Sending ‘Signal’ to Biden

Throughout his run for the White House in 2020 Democrat Joe Biden had campaigned on a promise to revive the Iran nuclear deal and reverse Trump’s maximum pressure strategy, which saw the US unilaterally scrap the 2015 Iran deal in 2018.

As Trump unleashed a plethora of sanctions on Tehran, in response, Tehran took several steps against denuclearisation, arguing that since the US had abandoned the deal first.


©
REUTERS / LEONHARD FOEGER

An Iranian opposition group protests outside a hotel, during a meeting of the JCPOA Joint Commission, in Vienna, Austria, April 9, 2021.

Once entering office, Joe Biden and his administration indicated they were open to rejoin the deal, rescinding the Trump-era push to snapback UN sanctions that expired as part of the 2015 accord. This included an arms embargo that terminated in 2020.

Mike Pompeo had led the push for snapback sanctions, as the US claimed that despite leaving the deal, it retained rights as a participant of an accompanying UN Security Council resolution, allowing participants to trigger the “snapback” process if they decided Iran was breaching the conditions of the agreement.

“President Biden has already demonstrated a troubling pattern of using tough rhetoric but pursuing the same, failed appeasement policies as his predecessor President Obama. His foreign policy can best be summarized: ‘Speak loudly and carry a twig,’” said Rep. Jim Banks.

Vienna Talks

This comes as earlier in April diplomats from Iran and the P4+1 (China, Russia, France, and the UK plus Germany) met in Vienna to discuss ways to get Iran and US back into the 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani declared on Tuesday that the US and Iran could reach an agreement to return to the 2015 nuclear deal soon if American negotiators proceed with “honesty” throughout the talks.

Rouhani added that at a meeting with activists in Tehran that the Vienna negotiations had “progressed about 60, 70%,” yet the Middle Eastern nation was in “no hurry” to revive the deal.


©
AFP 2021 / LARS TERNES

In this Handout photo made available by the EU delegation in Vienna shows Diplomats of the EU, China, Russia and Iran at the start of talks at the Grand Hotel in Vienna on April 6, 2021. – The US will participate in discussions in Vienna to try to save the international agreement on Iranian nuclear power. However, they will not be at the same table as Tehran and it is the Europeans who will serve as intermediaries between the two parties, in the hope of achieving concrete results after two months of impasse.

Meanwhile, the Biden administration had reportedly been sending indications to Tehran that it may consider reducing oil and financial sanctions currently targeting Iran in the context of the negotiations, according to the Wall Street Journal.

The newspaper cited sources participating in the discussions as claiming that US negotiators had put detailed proposals for reducing sanctions or removing them altogether on the table.

 



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Every drop is precious: the Mexican women saving water for their villages | Global development

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Amazon: Violence in Colombia putting “the lungs of the world” at risk | International

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Flying through the Amazon jungle, the pilot, a former Brazilian colonel, descends from 1500 to one thousand meters above sea level to approach the majestic Puré River.

The Puré crosses the border between Colombia and Brazil, a site that has become strategic for illegal mining and drug trafficking. In its channel more than 30 mining vessels can be seen from the colonel’s plane – tirelessly working to extract gold, illegally, from its waters.

In 2015 the National Parks of Colombia built a cabin called Puerto Franco in honor of the researcher Roberto Franco, the first to discover isolated indigenous peoples in Colombia, people who during the last centuries have decided not to have any contact with Western civilization. From the air, only remains of the cabin built in honor of Franco can be seen. Illegal armed groups burned it down during the pandemic.

This cabin had a very important purpose: to protect the isolated indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. Indeed, in the depths of the Amazon jungle, very close to Puerto Franco, live the Yuri, an indigenous group that lives in voluntary isolation.

The Río Puré National Park was created for their protection and along with it the most remote cabin in Colombia. Park ranger Luis Rivas, 70, a traditional expert from the Cubeo ethnic group, lived here, charged with keeping illegal miners, drug traffickers and guerrillas away from the isolated indigenous people.

Puerto Franco cabin, after being burned by illegal armed groups in Río Puré, in December 2021.
Puerto Franco cabin, after being burned by illegal armed groups in Río Puré, in December 2021.PNN Río Puré

One night, in the midst of the pandemic, Rivas dreamed that he was in danger and asked Parks officials to remove him from the area. When he reached the nearest town, he caught Covid-19 and died. Some time later, officials from the National Parks found out about the destruction of Puerto Franco during a flight over the Puré River. Since the pandemic they have been unable to access protected areas in the Amazon due to threats from illegal groups that now dominate this territory.

The rangers of this national park, like those of nine others in the Colombian Amazon, which covers almost 15 million hectares, had to leave their territory from one day to the next. “We had to send a plane and get everyone out. There was no time, they threatened us,” says a former National Parks official who prefers not to give his name for fear of reprisals from the guerrillas. This former official believes that these threats respond to the implementation by the Government of the Artemisa strategy, a program to stop deforestation in the Amazon.

In 2020 Colombia was the most dangerous country for the second year in a row for environmental defenders. According to the British NGO Global Witness, 65 environmental leaders were murdered.

Although this crisis has been brewing for decades, it has worsened since the signing of the Peace Agreement between the Colombian government and the FARC guerrillas in 2016. “The organizations that try to protect the Amazon have come into conflict with the interests of these powerful groups. and, as a consequence, they have increasingly become targets of attacks”, explains Juan Carlos Garzón, a researcher at the Ideas for Peace Foundation.

“I am threatened by the guerrillas,” says anthropologist Arturo, 45, who prefers not to give his real name precisely for this reason. He has walked through the Amazon region with a security detail since he reported to the Comprehensive System of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Non-Repetition in 2020 that the Carolina Ramírez guerrilla group arrived one day at the park cabin where he worked and told them that they had to leave. “They told us that they had declared war on Parks and that they did not want uniformed whites in the protected areas,” he recalls.

An indigenous Ticuna, in the Colombian Amazon jungle.
An indigenous Ticuna, in the Colombian Amazon jungle.Anadolu Agency (Getty Images)

The guerrillas stole their gasoline, cameras, computers and all the material they used to study the terrain. “They only left us a small motorized boat to get out,” says Arturo, who decided to leave as soon as he could when he saw his life in danger. Since that time two years ago, whenever he has tried to return, so have the threats. Indigenous officials remained in charge of the parks while Arturo tried to continue leading the projects as best he could from a distance.

However, he recently decided to leave his post: the situation, he says, was becoming more and more frustrating. Arturo was part of a group of park rangers who brought a report to the Truth Commission and the Special Jurisdiction for Peace in which they asked to be recognized as victims of the armed conflict, considering that the guerrillas “took us out under threat and everything was abandoned. I feel very powerless,” he says.

Arturo wonders, what did National Parks do with those who are threatened for trying to take care of a territory that belongs to everyone?, although in truth he knows the answer: nothing. According to official data, 12 park rangers have been killed between 1994 and 2020.

The deputy director of National Parks of Colombia, Carolina Jarro, explains that at the moment they are under very strong pressure from illegal mining, a business that they estimate represents close to three billion Colombian pesos in profits for criminal groups each year. The proceeds, moreover, are used to launder the resources obtained from drug trafficking: “Attempts have been made to control illegal mining in the Puré River because the uncontacted indigenous groups are there,” explains Jarro, citing the burning of the Puerto Franco cabin.

The deputy director also notes that the guerrillas do not stop at threatening the park rangers, saying that they have stolen material from the organization that the rangers need to do their work. “Groups outside the law prefer not to have anyone to see what happens, that’s why they kicked us out,” Jarro says

Two illegal dredgers (facilities whose purpose is the extraction of minerals found under water. In this case, gold), on the Puré River, in the Amazon.
Two illegal dredgers (facilities whose purpose is the extraction of minerals found under water. In this case, gold), on the Puré River, in the Amazon.Camilo Rozo

Although officials are currently unable to be inside the parks full time, they are using remote sensing technology to monitor activity in these protected areas. “We can see when the guerrillas build a house, when they create a road. Thus, we can file criminal complaints about the damage that is being done. We have not abandoned the place, we have to go out for protection. But we are always watching,” Jarro says firmly.

Jarro has worked as an official in a park in the Amazon region for the last 10 years. A trained sociologist, she climbed the ranks of the administration before becoming head of a specific area, the name of which she cannot reveal due to the threat from the guerrillas. Its mission has been to protect a group of indigenous people who emerged from isolation some years ago, only to be enslaved by the miners and rubber tappers who exploited the area’s resources. Now, many of these indigenous people, from the Nukak ethnic group, are highly resistant to contact: “In the beginning, it was the indigenous people themselves who negotiated with the guerrillas so that they would let us enter and work with the communities. There was never a bigger problem.”

However, after the peace process, everything changed. “The guerrillas held me hostage for two days, and after that they told me that I couldn’t set foot in the park again,” says Juana.

The government’s response: Militarize

The only solution Colombia’s national government has come up with has been to militarize these protected areas via a program known as ‘Operation Artemisa’.

In 2020 President Duque said in an interview with the World Economic Forum that “our strategy for fighting deforestation is a combination of carrot and stick. We’re fighting against illegal activities that destroy the tropical jungle. At the same time, we’re building up nature-based solutions. In the past two years, we have been able to reduce the rate of deforestation by 19%.” Duque has since said his government is aiming for a 30% reduction overall.

This month the Minister of Defense, Diego Molano, announced that 10,000 million pesos will be invested in the military bases of La Pedrera and Tarapacá for the control of illegal mining and the fight against drug trafficking.

Esperanza Leal Gómez is Director of the Frankfurt Zoological Society in Colombia. She says that protecting environmental leaders is the responsibility of the whole Colombian state, which must guarantee conditions for workers in the National Parks so they can “operate…without putting their lives in danger.”

Panoramic view of the Puré river, border between Colombia and Brazil.
Panoramic view of the Puré river, border between Colombia and Brazil.
Lucía Franco (EL PAÍS)

Gómez explains that the park rangers are not only essential for the conservation of the environment, but that they keep those at bay who want to exploit it: “The most latent threat is the dispute over territory between various illegal armed actors and civilians, who are being left unprotected.”

The director of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Colombia, Sandra Valenzuela, agrees. “As long as these threats continue, the national parks, their park rangers and uncontacted indigenous people will be in danger. Colombia must find a way to guarantee security and ensure the survival of the lungs of the world.”

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‘Forgotten’ Syrian interpreter attempts suicide after UK asylum delays | Global development

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A Syrian interpreter who has worked for the British government and the White Helmets has tried to kill himself after waiting nearly two years for a decision on his asylum claim.

Ali [not his real name] worked as an interpreter and translator for the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office in Istanbul, and for Mayday Rescue, a humanitarian organisation that supported the work of the White Helmets (officially known as the Syria Civil Defence) across Syria.

Ali arrived on a tier 2 highly skilled worker visa in spring 2020, staying near Liverpool, where he claimed asylum in summer 2020. He was given permission to work and still translates for the White Helmets from the UK. He says that, while he has the right to work, the anxiety and fear of his claim being rejected has had a significant impact on his health and wellbeing.

“I can’t sleep. It’s affecting everything – my mental health, my appetite … I can’t eat. I keep getting cramps and feeling really sick. But as I was telling the Home Office guy all this, I said ‘Please, give me a timeframe.’ ‘No, you have to wait.’ I said, ‘What can I do? Please help me. Help me to help myself.’ They said, ‘Write to me about what you’re telling me now.’ It’s even more frustrating to go through even more bureaucracy, when I’ve done everything they asked me to do.”

Despite frequently contacting the Home Office for an update on his claim, he says he has been given no timeframe or assurances, leading to a severe deterioration in his mental health.

“When I called the Home Office to tell them I am attempting to end my life, they said they will call the police,” he said. “I don’t know if that was a threat or if they were saying it to protect me – but an ambulance arrived two hours later. They treated me kindly, but it’s as if it’s a one-off case, and it’s not. I’m having these black, intrusive thoughts all the time. I feel I’m neglected, left on a desk, with a number, and just forgotten about.”

Ali, who was security checked before he began working on UK government-funded projects in 2013, says he feels let down by the government.

“Even though I was vetted by the Foreign Office, the Home Office still asked for an accent expert to double check I’m Syrian. Why would one part of the British government trust me to translate highly sensitive material but not trust another branch of the government that I am who I say I am? It makes no sense.”

Ali says his family in Syria have become a target as a result of his work with the British government and the White Helmets. In summer 2020, he says his mother was arrested and interrogated in a regime prison.

“She is now too terrified to speak to me, worried the line is being monitored,” Ali said. “She’s traumatised and feels she is being watched … and I have no security here, which makes it even worse.”

He continues to consult a psychiatrist, who is now offering urgent care, and he is on the strongest dose of antidepressants his doctor can prescribe.

A Home Office spokesperson said: “The government is committed to ensuring asylum claims are considered without unnecessary delay, but we are currently prioritising cases involving unaccompanied asylum seeking children. Asylum seekers have access to health and social care services, including mental health support from the point of arrival in the UK. We take every step to prevent self-harm or suicide, including a dedicated team responsible for identifying vulnerable asylum seekers and providing tailored support.”

  • In the UK, the Samaritans can be contacted on 116 123. In the US, the National Suicide Prevention Hotline is 1-800-273-8255. In Australia, the crisis support service Lifeline is on 13 11 14. Hotlines in other countries can be found here

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