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How Easter Island has changed since pandemic | International

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As the first commercial plane descended on Chile’s Easter Island on August 4, after 872 days of closure due to the pandemic, the passengers crowded the windows to photograph it as if they were facing some rare species in the middle of a safari. It was understandable: in addition to the uniqueness of being one of the most isolated inhabited corners of the planet, as well as its enigmatic sculptures carved in volcanic stone, for two and a half years the pandemic had completely cut off tourism to the island, its economic mainstay. Its inhabitants were isolated in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It was a bubble of 7,000 people that was only punctured at the beginning of this month. And on that island, which is also known as Rapa Nui (the navel of the world), the first visitors discovered that something had changed.

After the island closed, the tourists disappeared and, with them, the source of income for 75% of the population. Practically nobody cultivated the land anymore, and there was a significant shortage of products. “Tourism had us dazzled. People thought: tourism brings money, and money buys eggs. What do I want chickens for?” explains Julio Hotus, general secretary of the Council of Elders.

Uko Tongariki Tuki, Director of Tourism for Easter Island (Chile).
Uko Tongariki Tuki, Director of Tourism for Easter Island (Chile).sofia yanjari

The people turned to the sea for food. A deep blue sea in which you can easily see 30 meters away. Divers claim that once you submerge into the waters of Easter Island, the rest of the world seems black and white. People also began to grow their own food. Today, there are 1,200 urban gardens thanks to the help of the municipality. “We reconnected with each other. Went back to family events. To cooking curanto [a dish with spiritual dimensions], to fish, to dive, to walk around the island. We went back to the places that had been occupied by tourists,” says Uko Tongariki Tuki, the municipality’s tourism chief.

Two weekly flights

In August, LATAM airlines resumed the route with two weekly flights. The plan is to gradually add more. Before the pandemic, there were 10, plus the charter flights and cruise ships. Easter Island, with a surface of 164 square kilometers, used to receive 156,000 yearly visitors, which translated into $120 million for its economy.

Tourism has also been a launch pad for the newer generations. Thanks to this solid source of income, many young people have been able to study in universities on the mainland and travel. “In order to achieve a balance, we are working with the different players in the industry. In these meetings we ask ourselves if 14 weekly flights are necessary, or if opening a new hotel is responsible,” explains Uko.

Mayor Pedro Edmunds is aware that the new phase must be based on sustainability – the optimization of water and energy, but also of human resources. “We were wrong, we were going in the wrong direction and the pandemic made us realize that,” he says. “We came to the conclusion that tourism had blinded us. We were being a bit hypocritical by telling what the island was about without actually living it ourselves.”

Anakena beach, visited by tourists again.
Anakena beach, visited by tourists again.Sofia Yanjari

A “tourist” identity

For Hotus, a Rapa Nui councilor, the island is divided into two types of people: those from a more popular neighborhood, who are more rooted in traditions, and those who have more contact with the outsiders and the tourist business community. “Tourism is shaping the identity of the Rapanui people. Tourism tells us how we should function. We are not a tourist proposal; we are an answer,” he says.

The problems that the people of Easter Island face, such as violence and the consumption of alcohol or drugs – points out psychologist Domingo Izquierdo – have a lot to do with an identity crisis, a loss of roots. “These are the consequences of a process that has ended up building a tourist identity above its ancestral essence,” says Izquierdo.

Residents of Easter Island await the arrival of new tourists at the airport.
Residents of Easter Island await the arrival of new tourists at the airport.sofia yanjari

Tourism has been a springboard for new generations. Thanks to this solid source of income, many young people have been able to educate themselves in universities on the mainland and travel. “To achieve balance, we are working with the different players in the industry. In these meetings, we ask ourselves if 14 flights a week are necessary or if it is responsible to open a new hotel”, describes Uko. The mayor is clear that the new stage must be based on sustainability. The optimization of water and energy, but also of human resources.

During the pandemic, nearly 2,000 inhabitants left the island, most of the conti, as the islanders refer to Chileans living on the mainland. “Before we looked for solutions to our problems abroad, now we want to train and specialize our people,” adds Edmunds.

The “tourist” identity

For Hotus, a Rapa Nui councilor, the island is divided into two types of people: those from a more popular neighborhood, who are more rooted in traditions, and those who have more contact with outsiders and the tourist business community. “It is so much that tourism is shaping the identity of the Rapanui people. Tourism tells us how we should function. We are not a tourist proposal, we are an answer,” he says over a fresh tuna lunch at the Topa Ra’a seaside restaurant, where waiters are eager to serve visitors again.

The problems faced by the people of Easter Island, such as violence and the consumption of alcohol or drugs, “have a lot to do with an identity crisis, a loss of roots,” says psychologist Domingo Izquierdo. “These are consequences of a process that has ended up building a tourist identity, above its ancestral essence,” says Izquierdo, who cares for patients through a municipal program in a house open to the people, where therapies can be developed under an avocado or with your feet in the sand.

Julio Hotus, secretary general of the Easter Island Council of Elders.
Julio Hotus, secretary general of the Easter Island Council of Elders.sofia yanjari

One of the great causes of the Council of Elders, which watches over the rights of the Rapanui people before the Chilean state, is the preservation of their language, which is of Polynesian origin. Nowadays, fewer and fewer young people learn it. In their own homes, they prioritize Spanish or English, because it is “more useful.” Only 10% of those under the age of 18 speak Rapanui, according to UNESCO.

Polynesian dances are one of the most sought-after tourist attractions. The energetic traditional dances can rekindle the spirit of the most exhausted traveler at the end of the day. Men and women, with painted and feathered bodies, move in such a way that it would seem that they have the drums inside their hips and a ukulele in their knees and wrists.

Maima Rapu is a teacher at the Kari Kari cultural ballet, the oldest on the island and the only academy that continued to teach during the pandemic. Earlier this month, the Kari Kari ballet was finally able to perform again in front of an audience. Among the spectators were some of the 258 people who arrived on the first commercial flight. Some of them were relatives of the islanders, parents who had not seen their children in more than a year and foreigners who had their ticket since 2020.

The Rapanui, eager to see new faces and to reactivate their economy after one of the longest quarantines in the world, have reopened their doors with the intention of changing their relationship with tourism. And those who know this 100% indigenous territory in depth, assure that nothing can be done against the intentions of the island.

Maima Rapu, a teacher at the Kari Kari cultural dance academy on Easter Island.
Maima Rapu, a teacher at the Kari Kari cultural dance academy on Easter Island.sofia yanjari

Maima Rapu, 42, is a teacher at the Kari Kari cultural ballet, the oldest on the island and the only academy that continued to teach during the pandemic. “For us, dance and percussion are a means to interest young people in picking up their language, which we also teach them, because you can’t really dance if you don’t understand what is being sung,” she explains.

Last Friday, the Kari Kari ballet was finally able to perform again in front of the public. Among the spectators were some of the 258 people who arrived on the first commercial flight. Among the passengers were relatives of the islanders, parents who had not seen their children in more than a year and foreigners who had the ticket since 2020. All were greeted with cheers and applause from a group that approached the Mataveri international airport, and with cheerful flower leis delivered by the reception team.

The Rapanui, eager to see new faces and revive their economy after one of the longest quarantines in the world, have reopened their doors with the intention of changing their relationship with tourism. And, those who know this indigenous community, say there is nothing that the island always achieves its goals.

The Moai of Tongariki, on August 5, after the reopening of the island.
The Moai of Tongariki, on August 5, after the reopening of the island.sofia yanjari

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‘Silence is the crime’: Patrice Evra on surviving abuse and his work with the WHO | Global development

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His autobiography had been written and was at the printers when international football star Patrice Evra decided he had something important to add about his life. But first he had to tell his mum. “That was the hardest challenge,” he says. “And I was a 40-year-old man.”

Until that point last year, the former Manchester United and French national team captain had never spoken about being sexually abused by a teacher when he was 13.

Last week the Senegal-born Evra stepped on what he called “the most famous podium in the world” – the stage of the UN general assembly in New York – to speak about the abuse and his decision to take up a new role campaigning for the protection of children, especially in Africa. That moment, he says, and the standing ovation for his impassioned call for action, meant more to him than any of the trophies he accumulated in his world-class football career.

“People were in shock when I wrote this in my book. So I wanted to share,” Evra says. This year the former player visited several African countries with the World Health Organization (WHO), speaking in schools and meeting survivors of abuse.

“I’d started to be on social media and, OK, I’m a bad singer, but every time I did a video I was singing and people were starting to say to me that this helped them. So I thought, ‘OK, I can do more than that,’ and I started working with the WHO, to go to Africa.

Patrice Evra speaks at the UN general assembly.
Patrice Evra speaks at the UN general assembly. Photograph: Loey Felipe/UN Photo

“I met a lot of survivors. I’m just in a learning process. Just because I experienced sexual violence at the age of 13 doesn’t mean I know everything. So it was pretty simple, to start to talk.

“Abuse is taboo, but I love everything taboo, bring it on. In African culture, for a black person it can be even difficult to talk about love. I never saw my mum kissing my dad. I never saw that. So for an African person to have succeeded in his life and then talk about things like this, they were in shock.

“I went to a school, the teacher asked the kids, ‘Do you think it’s possible for a black person to be abused?’ They all said no. Then I shared my story. They couldn’t believe it. For them it was impossible for a man.”

Evra says his retirement from professional football in July 2019 was a catalyst. For starters he learned to cry.

“I grew up thinking that crying was a weakness but actually now I understand that you actually should cry. You should share your emotion. Women are 10 years in advance, maybe more … but men should cry.

“It would have been too difficult to show emotion when I was still playing. I remember once with a team, we were on a plane and there was a player and he was watching a movie and he was crying and I was like, ‘Why are you crying?’ He said, ‘This movie, I’ve watched it five times and it always makes me cry.’

“My first reaction was to turn to my teammates and say, ‘This guy cannot play a game of football. This is weak.’ But now I am a different man, I would watch this movie with him and I would cry with him. But back then, for me it was impossible.”

Evra playing for Manchester United against Arsenal in the English Premier League, 2011.
Evra playing for Manchester United against Arsenal in the English Premier League, 2011. Photograph: Eddie Keogh / Reuters/REUTERS

Evra did not speak out even when the police officers investigating his abuser contacted him. “I remember at 24 I was playing for Monaco and the police called me and said, ‘We have had some complaints about this man, do you know anything?’, and I said no. So I lied. You don’t want to deal with it.”

It was when he was watching a documentary on paedophilia with his partner, the Danish model Margaux Alexandra, that the realisation came. “She saw my face and I just let my emotions out and I said, ‘You know what, I think I have to put it in the book.’

“For my mum, she was devastated. To that 13-year-old kid, now a grown man and facing her, she kept saying, “I’m sorry, I’m sorry”, but I said, ‘No mum, I’m OK, I’m fine.’ And that is why I don’t call myself a victim, I’m a survivor.

“You feel shame, you feel guilty. I just blocked it. I said: ‘Mum, I don’t even remember his face … I don’t want any pity for myself.’

“When I was captain of Manchester United or the French national team, people always saw me as someone who never showed their emotion and [they] say that’s because I am from the street and tough, but actually it’s because of this trauma that I was this way.”

Evra’s father was a diplomat and moved the family from Senegal to Brussels when Evra was one, before settling in the Paris suburb of Les Ulis two years later.

“School is normally a place where I should have been safe. I should have had someone protect me … I didn’t have it. It was instead a place that took all my emotion away. It was difficult for me to trust people after that,” he says.

On top of growing up in a difficult neighbourhood – with 23 siblings and half-siblings – Evra also had the deep-seated racism prevalent in Europe’s football clubs to contend with.

Racism was really tough,” he says. “I played in Italy when I was 17 and I was the only black player in the league. I had the whole thing of monkey noises and people throwing bananas. For me, it made me think, ‘I’m going to hurt you in a different way, on the pitch.’ The racism was not bad at Manchester United but of course it is there. Even when England had the three black players who missed the penalties, on social media it was just crazy. It’s not only England [but] in France too: when you play well you are a French player, when you play badly you are a Senegalese player.

Evra answers questions at a UN side event about child protection.
Evra answers questions at a UN side event about child protection. Photograph: Joe Short

“Silence is the crime. For racism, for abuse. When they tried to do the Super League, I see everyone talking about this with such energy and I’m thinking, ‘Why don’t we have this energy to tackle racism?’”

Globally, WHO estimates that up to 1 billion children aged two to 17 will have experienced physical, sexual, or emotional violence or neglect in the past year.

Evra, a father himself, says something must be done. “We have to end the violence. We are talking about many things but I don’t hear about ending the violence against children. Why is it so taboo?

“The support is important to end the violence, everyone experiences violence in their childhood. We need to support the family. We need to hear the stories of survivors. This is the start.”

In the UK, Rape Crisis offers support for rape and sexual abuse on 0808 802 9999 in England and Wales, 0808 801 0302 in Scotland, or 0800 0246 991 in Northern Ireland. In the US, Rainn offers support on 800-656-4673. In Australia, support is available at 1800Respect (1800 737 732). Other international helplines can be found at ibiblio.org/rcip/internl.html

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How Budget Deficit May Become a Real Problem for US

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us, opinion, budget deficit, inflation, recession, us federal reserve, joe biden, us midterm elections

us, opinion, budget deficit, inflation, recession, us federal reserve, joe biden, us midterm elections

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President Joe Biden’s plan to slash student loan debt could cost US taxpayers about $400 billion, the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office said on September 26. This did not, however, prevent congressional negotiators from agreeing on nearly $12 billion in new military and economic assistance to Ukraine.

“The US budget deficit is an old story,” said Dr. Paul Craig Roberts, a US economist and ex-assistant secretary of the Treasury under Ronald Reagan. “The ‘Reagan deficits’ (approximately $200 billion) according to critics were supposed to collapse the US economy in 1982-84. In 2020, the US budget deficit was $3,100 billion – 15 times larger. In 2021 the deficit was $2,800 billion. This year it is projected to be $1,000 billion but will be much larger as the Federal Reserve is driving the economy into recession.”

However, US citizens do not appear concerned by the mounting numbers since they have been hearing about large and growing budget deficits all their lives and nothing yet has happened, the economist remarks.

To complicate matters further, the deficit issue has become a “rhetorical shell game” for the government, the Washington Post’s Glenn Kessler wrote last week. For instance, earlier this month President Joe Biden bragged about cutting the $350 billion budget deficit last year, “but the reality is he’s increased the budget deficit, not reduced it,” Kessler highlighted.
Thus, the budget deficit was expected to decline $875 billion in 2021, but Biden’s additional COVID relief and other new policies resulted in a more modest decline of $360 billion. At the same time, the US president’s decision to reduce student debt for millions could cost somewhere between $400 billion and $600 billion over a decade, according to some estimates. In addition, there are “unexpected emergencies,” such as the Ukraine conflict, which put pressure on the federal budget, Kessler remarked, citing a new accounting by the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, which claims that an additional $4.8 trillion in borrowing has been added in the 2021-2031 period under Biden.
Dollar bills are deposited in a tip box, May 24, 2021 in New York. - Sputnik International, 1920, 21.09.2022

How the US Fed Rate Hike May Backfire on Global Economy

“As long as the dollar is the reserve currency and is used to settle most international payments, the US deficits are financed by countries holding their foreign reserves in US dollar securities,” explains Dr. Roberts. “So foreigners finance the US deficit and the Federal Reserve itself buys any overhang. This is why the deficit has not been a problem.”

Still, there are several reasons why the US budget deficit could indeed become a financing problem, according to the economist.

First, the Federal Reserve announced that its current policy is to sell bonds, removing the central bank as a purchaser of US Treasury debt, Dr. Roberts pointed out. Second, US sanctions by abusing the world currency role is causing other countries to move away from using dollars to settle their international transactions. “That means less dollars will find their way into foreign central bank reserves,” the former Reagan official elaborated.

As of yet, however, the US dollar is safe and sound while other reserve currencies – the euro and UK pound – are collapsing due to sanctions-produced energy shortages and possible industry shutdowns, according to the economist. Having sucked the life from the euro and the pound. the greenback remains the preferred and strongest currency. “Until Russia, China, and participating countries create their own payments and clearing system, there remains no alternative to the US dollar,” Dr. Roberts remarked.

Knife crime - Sputnik International, 1920, 26.09.2022

‘Absolutely Hammered’: UK Pound Slides to Its Lowest Level Against US Dollar Since 1971

Greenback’s Strength Not Infinite, Recession to Bite US

While this state of affairs lulls some US politicians into believing that they can rely on the dollar’s strength forever and continue to fund overseas wars, the US’ domestic problems pile up.

“US infrastructure is wearing out,” says Dr. Roberts. “Much of it is financed by local and state governments, and their revenue position has been badly damaged by the offshoring of US manufacturing, which has deprived them of tax revenues while massive influx of immigrant-invaders have pushed up the cost of supporting the illegal entrants. As the federal government permits the entry of millions of illegals, perhaps the federal government should be assuming the related costs instead of sending weapons to Ukraine.”

In addition, soaring prices are eating away at savings and real wages as inflation still remains at a 40-year higher. Polls indicate that inflation has largely become a major concern of voters along with crime. The unfolding situation may deal a heavy blow to the Democratic Party in the November midterms by stripping it of its slim majority in the US Congress. If this happens, it may curb the Biden administration’s political ambitions and disrupt its plans with some Republican lawmakers threatening to impeach the incumbent.
US police crime scene tape - Sputnik International, 1920, 26.09.2022

Crime and Inflation Creating Difficult Headwinds for Democrats Ahead of Midterms, Observers Say
There is yet another problem on the horizon, according to Dr. Roberts. The economist assumes that the Federal Reserve will drag the nation deeper into recession by aggressively increasing interest rates at a time when consumer demand is cooling and the US economy is slowing down.

“The effect of the Federal Reserve’s recession on the deficit will be far greater than the military expenditures for Ukraine, which are mere pocket change,” the former Reagan official notes.

Last week, the Federal Reserve raised its benchmark interest rate by 75 basis points again with its chair, Jay Powell, planning an additional 1.25 percentage points’ worth of increases this year. Even though these interventions could hurt the labor, housing and stock markets, Powell is not going to back down. “I wish there were a painless way to do that. There isn’t,” the Fed chair told journalists last week.



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Brazil election: Lula maintains lead over Bolsonaro in final stretch to vote | International

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Brazil’s presidential election is shaping up to be a battle between the far right, represented by the current President Jair Bolsonaro, and the left, which has been gaining ground over the past few years. And with less than a week to go until the first round on October 2, the leftist candidate, former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, is in the lead. According to poll averages, analyzed by EL PAÍS, the Workers’ Party (PT) candidate holds an advantage of around 10 points over Bolsonaro. But to win the election in the first round and avoid a runoff vote on October 30, he needs to secure more than 50% of the vote. At the moment, he is five points short of this threshold, but he may be able to sway the 7% of voters who are currently undecided or planning to abstain.

Lula’s lead over Bolsonaro has been more or less stable since the beginning of May, when he officially announced he was running for president. The fluctuations in the margin appear to be due more to circumstantial issues, and it is unclear whether they will affect the outcome of the October 2 vote. For now, none of the most recent polls, nor the historical averages calculated by EL PAÍS, give Lula a lead of more than 15 points or show him clearly winning the election in the first round.

The polls indicate that Bolsonaro gained more support when former judge, Sergio Moro, and João Doria, the former governor of São Paulo, pulled out of the race. But this has not appeared to affect Lula’s voter base, which also remained stable after the centrist Simone Tebet and center-left politician Ciro Gomes announced their candidacies. In other words, Lula’s base seems notably less volatile than that of the current president.

For this reason, recent polls have begun to question whether Lula could in fact win the election in the first round. An overwhelming victory at the October 2 vote would also make it more difficult for Bolsonaro to deny the election results, something which he has hinted at doing.

For both Lula and Bolsonaro, the margin between the highest and lowest estimate in the polls is between only six and eight points. This means that even if Lula achieves the lowest estimate and Bolsonaro the highest, the former president would still be in the lead. What’s more, the difference in estimates is partly due to the differing criteria of pollsters and whether estimates include undecided voters. If undecided voters are excluded from the poll averages, Lula would go from winning an estimated 44.9% to 48.2%, while Bolsonaro would receive 37.1% of the vote. In this case, Lula would have an 11-point lead over Bolsonaro, but still not the 51% or more required to win the election in the first round.

In other words, polls show that Lula will lead Bolsonaro in the first round, but will not win enough support to avoid a runoff vote on October 30. There are still days to go before the end of the high-profile campaign, which has been rocked by violence, including threats, harrasment and the murder of Lula supporters at the hands of Bolsonaro backers.

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