If you’ve ever been served a typical Italian breakfast of sweet cornetti pastries, ciambelle donuts, crostata tarts, or just… cake, you’ll know that Italians have a highly developed sweet tooth.
This is given particular free rein at Christmas, when the supermarket and delicatessen shelves are stacked high with national and local seasonal sweets.
Here, we’ve picked five of Italy’s better-known winter holiday desserts.
Head over to your local Italian deli, or if you’re feeling ambitious, throw on an apron, and try out these Christmas treats, Italian-style.
Milan lays claim to this light-as-a-feather domed cake made from sweet brioche bread, usually studied with pieces of candied fruit.
When the Christmas period rolls around you’ll see boxes of panettone stacked from floor to waist-height in every supermarket you enter.
A standard supermarket panettone is simple and affordable, but more elaborate creations from a real pasticceria can be flavoured with anything from chocolate chunks to pistachio cream, and can cost up to tens of euros.
Somewhat similar to a panettone but denser, richer, taller, and with a slightly more delicate flavour and texture, the pandoro hails from Verona.
True to its name (pandoro = golden cake), pandoro is yellow-golden in colour. It sits higher than an a panettone and is baked into a star shape, with the base wider than the top.
A pandoro is usually served plain with a dusting of icing sugar (often provided in a separate packet, to be added right before serving by shaking along with the cake in its cellophane wrapping to completely coat its exterior).
National favourites, pandoro and panettone are the two desserts you’re likely to find vying for prominence at any Italian’s Christmas dinner table. Some families will proudly declare their preference for one over the other; others refuse to play favourites, and buy both.
Perhaps the closest thing Italy has to a British Christmas cake, this Bolognese specialty dating back to the Middle Ages is a rich, fruity concoction made with flour, almonds, pine nuts, a mix of candied and cooked fruit, cinnamon, wine syrup, cocoa and chocolate.
Another name for a certosino is panspeziale. It’s unclear whether the speziale refers to the speziali, or apothecaries, who originated the recipe, making it ‘apothecary bread’, or comes from the local dialect word for ‘special’, making it ‘special bread’.
Like a Christmas cake, a certosino is best left to age for several weeks after baking and then decorated with candied fruit, walnuts and almonds and brushed with warm honey or jam before serving.
A specialty from the southern city of Naples, struffoli are little donut-like balls of sweet deep fried dough mixed with orange and lemon zest, coated in honey and covered in coloured sprinkles and candied fruit.
In the olden days they were cooked by nuns in convents, who would deliver them as gifts at Christmas to wealthy aristocratic families who had been especially generous in their donations to the poor.
Struffoli are traditionally shaped into a Christmas wreath or piled up into a pointed mound to resemble a Christmas tree.
When you see this white, nut-dotted nougat appear in the shops and markets, wrapped in clear plastic and tied with a ribbon, you know Christmas isn’t far away.
Just which part of Italy can lay claim to originating Italian torrone is somewhat disputed. Some say Cremona, in northern Lombardy; others say Sicily in the south, having adapted a Middle Eastern recipe.
What is generally agreed upon is that its name comes from the Latin torrere, meaning ‘to toast’, as the nuts contained in torrone should first be toasted to bring out a caramelly aroma and crunchy texture.
Almonds are probably the most popular nuts to use in torrone, but hazelnuts or pistachios are very popular alternatives.
Way too early for housing starts to engender feelgood factor
College Park to remain in full use for Trinity sports clubs
The board of Trinity College has agreed to pursue an alternative site for the building of a temporary exhibition pavilion during the renovation period of its Old Library, saving College Park from what several affected sports clubs said would have proven “hugely detrimental” to their training and competition needs.
Concerns had been raised over the timing and level of consultation with regard to College Park being named the preferred site last November, three of Trinity’s largest and oldest sporting clubs – athletics, football and cricket – already raising considerable objections over the proposal.
A Trinity communications press statement on Wednesday afternoon said that, subject to statutory constraints, “the Board of Trinity has today (Wednesday) approved a proposal to renovate the Printing House building, which would house the Book of Kells during the period of renovation, and also create a temporary exhibition in New Square, at the centre of campus”.
The alternative proposal of the Printing House, coupled with New Square, “follows consultation within the Trinity community”; Trinity students have four representatives on the 27-strong board, three from the Students’ Union (SU), and one from the Graduate Students’ Union (GSU), their president Gisèle Scanlon, and all four had already expressed their dissent at the College Park proposal.
“A process of careful consultation across College has led to today’s agreement on how to proceed with this plan,” said Trinity provost Linda Doyle. “I want to thank those involved for their engagement. We believe this choice of location offers the best possible solution for our staff, students and future visitors to College.”
Trinity’s bursar Eleanor Denny added: “We are extremely grateful to everyone in Trinity who helped us arrive at this crucial decision. This innovative plan allows us to preserve public access to the Book of Kells, one of Ireland’s foremost cultural attractions as well as restoring one of the oldest landmark buildings on campus, the Printing House.”
A Trinity email first sent to affected clubs in October said: “Based on early discussions Trinity has had with Dublin City Council, the location with the best opportunity to secure planning permission is College Park.”
A feasibility study outlining the scale of the project allowed for the continuation of some sport at College Park; however, according to the three clubs, this would have effectively rendered College Park useless as a competition and match facility, while also depriving the wider college community the sort of green space it increasingly craves.
The Old Library renovation is expected to take between three to five years, costing around €120 million, which meant it could have been 2028 before the space was restored. The temporary exhibition project is still subject to planning permission.
“We were very worried about this, for a very long time, and spent a lot of time lobbying against this,” said Scanlon, the GSU president also starting a petition to Save College Park. “All other options weren’t properly considered, and I think there should be lessons learnt on this. And whatever happens with the planning from this point, College Park should not be on the agenda, and should never have been on the agenda.”
Ray O’Malley, president of Dublin University Association Football Club (DUAFC), founded in 1883, also welcomed the outcome of Wednesday’s board meeting: “I think they [the board] misjudged the feelings towards College Park, from the general student base, and the clubs that use it,” he said. “Thankfully they appear to have belatedly realised that, and somewhere down the line the correct decision has been made, perhaps not following in the correct procedure.
“It’s our unique selling point, and the reason why we were fighting so hard for this. Even if it was only on a temporary basis, it’s too important for us. We all recognise the importance and value of the Book of Kells, but sport is a very importance part of college life too, and we’re extremely grateful for the role that people like Gisèle played in this, some of the club members, and that the powers that be accepted somewhere down the line that College Park simply wasn’t the right place for this proposal.”
Pandemic need for flexibility not reflected in draft laws
Draft laws on remote working mark an attempt by Tánaiste Leo Varadkar to formalise radical work practice changes that were suddenly introduced when Covid-19 struck two years ago.
Back then, the force of the pandemic was such that procedural and legal niceties were swept aside in the rush to protect public health and keep the economy turning. Many tricky questions were avoided at that time but they can be avoided no longer now that most restrictions have been lifted.
“We’ve worked through for two years basically turning a blind eye to the whole thing but that will stop,” said Richard Grogan, an employment law solicitor in Dublin.
“We’ve been working through an emergency which is slightly different. The emergency is now finishing.”
The new regime is supposed to open more choice for workers if they wish to work from home, giving them a right to seek such arrangements after six months. But in-built flexibilities for employers open scope for them to refuse permission to work remotely on 13 grounds.
Conflict appears inevitable. With key details still to be worked out, legal experts, employers and unions foresee many potential pitfalls and practical challenges when it comes to implementing the new arrangements in real time.
Many say the pandemic changed the world of work forever. A recent Central Statistics Office survey suggests that 80 per cent of workers worked remotely at some point since coronavirus struck, compared with 23 per cent before it. Two years later, with all signs suggesting the most acute phase of the health crisis has passed, these practices have bedded down to an extent that few might have expected at the outset.
Traffic and transport
Of those in employment who can work remotely, CSO data suggests 88 per cent want to continue after restrictions were removed: 28 per cent of them all the time; and 60 per cent some of the time. The proportion expressing that preference was highest at 93 per cent among respondents in counties Kildare, Louth, Meath and Wicklow in the Dublin commuter belt, where workers often encounter long traffic delays and overcrowded public transport.
If all of that points to high demand to avail of new laws, considerable hurdles remain to be overcome. To name but a few, these centre on domestic health and safety legislation, insurance issues, European data-protection law and on the Workplace Relations Commission’s new role in determining appeals to decisions against remote working.
“A lot of the issues that are going to go to the WRC where there isn’t agreement will relate to things like health and safety of a premises or [General Data Protection Regulation] compliance or whether somebody can actually do their work remotely. The [WRC] adjudication officers aren’t trained in any of those areas,” said Grogan.
“They are not there to look at a work station and say: ‘Does it comply with health and safety? Is it possible to put a work station into this bedroom safely?’ So that’s a huge issue.”
Asked whether the WRC had enough resources, the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment said it would “work closely” with the institution to ensure it did. “Adjudication officers will receive appropriate information on the content of the legislation and the WRC was consulted on the heads of the Bill,” the department said.
Grogan suggested the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act might have to be “dumbed down” for remote work. “The only change you could bring in is if you’re working from home and you have an accident it’s your problem.”
He added that changes might also be required to the Civil Liability Act, which governs personal injuries. “There’s going to be a bit of nervousness overall about this,” he said, referring to employers.
But while the Government always has the option of amending Irish law, it can’t do anything on its own with European GDPR rules that impose stringent restrictions on how business uses sensitive personal data.
Neil McDonnell, chief executive of the Irish Small and Medium Enterprises business representative group, pointed to potential difficulties with remote-working where staff deal with such data. These include companies in the area of external payroll support – dealing with gross and net pay and issues like payments under maintenance agreements – and human resources support.
“There’s a few business that have been able to function remotely but reluctantly and with a lot of concern around what they’re doing,” McDonnell said.
“They basically have the innards of the company sitting on laptops. You could have someone doing HR support on their laptop in the kitchen – a bullying complaint, a harassment complaint or something of a sexual nature – and you have people who are third parties with no involvement in the companies walking past looking at that stuff.”
Employers were also concerned about the potential for claims for personal injury while working at home, McDonnell added. “We’re waiting to see something coming to court, or the Personal Injuries Assessment Board or the Health and Safety Authority.”
The plan has also come in for criticism from Fórsa, the largest public sector union, which said the “business grounds” for refusing remote working were too broad.
The union said the inclusion of grounds such as “potential negative impact on quality”, “potential negative impact on performance” and “planned structural change” would create loopholes that could allow employers turn down requests for no objective or proven reason.
“Employers must not have the option of simply turning down requests on spurious or vague grounds. Instead, they must be required to demonstrate, in a concrete way, that remote or blended arrangements are unworkable before they can turn down a request,” said Kevin Callinan, Fórsa general secretary.
Further questions are certain to arise as the law works its way through the Dáil and Seanad. The pandemic was all about ad hoc moves. Permanent arrangements are another matter entirely.
Polish state has ‘blood on its hands’ after death of woman refused an abortion | Abortion
Lidl to open new store in Billingshurst (GB)
Way too early for housing starts to engender feelgood factor
The 1915 Armenian Genocide and its Russophobic Origins
What’s artificial intelligence best at? Stealing human ideas | Technology
The Religious Roots of Russia’s Mistrust towards the West
Current1 week ago
MARK partners with HUB for first UK BTR project
Technology1 week ago
Microsoft acquires Activision, becomes world’s third largest game company
Current1 week ago
European Outlook 2022
Global Affairs1 week ago
Shock in Colombia over murder of 14-year-old indigenous activist | Colombia
Current1 week ago
Have you overlooked these rental checks or has your landlord?
Global Affairs6 days ago
Macron promises strong EU borders
Culture1 week ago
Blue flag beaches must be kept dog-free, An Taisce says
Current1 week ago
Man due in court over murder of Ashling Murphy in Tullamore, Co Offaly