This article is from a series by the invaluable William Brumfield, (Wikipedia), Professor of Slavic Studies at Tulane University, New Orleans, USA.
Brumfield is the world’s leading historian of Russian architecture. He makes frequent trips to Russia, often to her remote regions, and records the most unusual examples of surviving architecture with detailed, professional photography.
His most recent book is a real treasure, Architecture At The End Of The Earth, Photographing The Russian North (2015). (Amazon). This truly beautiful book was made possible by the support of a US philanthropist, and its true cost is 3 times its retail price, and we can’t recommend it highly enough. Here is our 2015 review of it.
Bravo to RBTH for making Brumfield’s work possible, and providing such a great platform for his beautiful photography. We recommend visiting the RBTH page, which has a slide show for each article with many more pictures than we can fit in here.
Don’t believe in miracles? Well, we can assure you, Brumfield’s work is undoubtedly just that. You can find some of his other articles on RI here.
The Russian country estate has long been associated with literary classics. There are few 19th century writers who did not have some intimate connection with that milieu, from Leo Tolstoy’s beloved Yasnaya Polyana to the Dostoevsky family’s modest Darovoye. Among those writers must be included Alexander Griboyedov (1795-1829), a close acquaintance of Alexander Pushkin and author of the satiric comedy “Woe from Wit,” one of the undying classics of Russian literature.
Indeed, the country estate, usadba in Russian, has played a major role in Russian history and culture generally. With the cataclysms of the 20th century many of the estate houses, large and small, vanished, whether through outright destruction, vandalism or neglect. And the losses have continued to the present. Yet there are examples where perseverance and dedication, skill and luck have led to the resurrection of an abandoned property.
Such is the case of the Griboyedov family estate of Khmelita, located some 20 miles north of Vyazma in Smolensk Region.
Owned by the princely Buinosov-Rostovsky family during the 16th century, the estate was acquired at the end of the 17th century by Semyon Griboyedov, a military commander in the 1680s. In 1747, Khmelita passed into the hands of Fyodor Griboyedov — also a military officer — who began a major reconstruction of the estate in 1753.
The grand mansion is a rare surviving example of the baroque style prevalent during the reign of Empress Elizabeth I (1709-1761), with stuccoed brick facades painted in a pastel color with white trim. The facades are marked with paired attached columns, curved pediments, circular and oval windows. The main floor of the interior consisted of enfilades of state rooms, with a two-story hall in the center.
The park façade opens onto a central terrace with a graceful curving staircase descending on either side to the landscaped park. In addition to the mansion, the expansive ensemble includes four attached service wings as well as a church dedicated to the Kazan Icon of the Virgin (1759).
At the beginning of the 19th century, Khmelita was owned by Alexei Fyodorovich Griboyedov, whose sister Anastasia had married Sergei Griboyedov, a retired army officer of little means. Anastasia Griboyedova placed great store in the authority of her wealthy brother, who apparently served as a surrogate father for her son Alexander, born in January 1795.
Thus the young Alexander Griboyedov was a frequent guest at Khmelita, particularly in the summer. Through his uncle’s position in Moscow society, Griboyedov was well placed to observe the manners and mores of the Russian nobility. Griboyedov applied this knowledge to deft satiric effect in his verse play Woe from Wit, completed in 1824 but published only in brief fragments during his lifetime because of censorship.
Griboyedov did not spend much time at Khmelita as an adult, however. After military service during the war against Napoleon, Griboyedov moved to St. Petersburg in 1815 and in the summer of 1817 entered the diplomatic corps. In 1818, he was offered a diplomatic posting to the United States. He instead accepted a position with the mission to Persia, whose tense relations with Russia ultimately led to war.
At the beginning of 1823, Griboyedov took a leave from diplomatic service and moved to the Moscow area, where he contined work on Woe from Wit. He returned to the diplomatic corps in 1825 and played an important role in diplomatic negotiations during the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), which concluded with the Turkmenchay Treaty.
In January 1829 Griboyedov returned to Persia as the head of the Russian mission, which was based at Tabriz, but he made the fatal decision to accompanied a diplomatic group to Tehran, where passions were still inflamed by the terms of the treaty. On Jan. 30, the Russian mission was stormed by an enraged mob. All but one of the 38 Russians perished. Griboyedov was killed during the fighting and apparently thrown from a window.
Griboyedov’s memory lives on at Khmelita, however.
During the latter part of the 19th century, the grand Khmelita manor entered a period of decline until 1894, when the estate was purchased by Count Peter Geiden, a prominent nobleman of liberal political beliefs. He not only carefully restored the mansion and its furnishings but also added an extensive collection of European paintings.
After the 1917 revolution, the estate was nationalized and the contents of the mansion dispersed. Remarkably, the architectural ensemble survived not only the turbulent years of revolutionary conflict, but also the terrible battles in the Vyazma area during World War II. For much of this time between Fall 1941 and Spring 1943, the mansion served as German staff headquarters.
After the war, a series of careless missteps resulted in a major fire and the estate barely avoided being completely demolished. Fortunately, the noted restoration specialist Petr Baranovsky (1892-1984) brought an end to the outright destruction of the property in the late 1960s.
However, the long process of restoration began only with the involvement of Victor Kulakov, a former mechanic who by happenstance became acquainted with Baranovsky and the Khmelita project. Through ceaseless efforts during the 1990s, the resurrection of the mansion and estate ensemble took its course under the direction of Kulakov.
The mansion has now been superbly restored and serves as a museum dedicated to Alexander Griboyedov. Where possible, original decorative detailing has been preserved on the interior, and the rooms on the main floor have been elegantly refurnished in the style of the early 19th century. The mansion’s park façade once again opens onto an appealing landscape park. Reconstruction work continues on the ensemble’s service buildings and the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Virgin.
One of the nearby service buildings has been converted to a museum devoted to Admiral Pavel Nakhimov (1802-55), known above all for his heroic efforts in the defense of Sevastapol during the Crimean War. Nakhimov was born at the neighboring estate of Gorodok, which, like most country estates, did not survive the turbulence of the 20th century.
Beautifully situated and accessible over good roads, Khmelita welcomes all visitors interested in the rich cultural history of the Russian country estate.
Lewis Hamilton wins chaotic Saudi GP to draw level with Max Verstappen
After chaos, needle, misunderstanding and some absolutely uncompromising racing, it took a cool head to prevail and Lewis Hamilton duly delivered, his win at the Saudi Arabian Grand Prix ensuring there is now nothing in it going into the Formula One season finale.
Beating title rival Max Verstappen into second, the pair are now level on points after a race of complexity and confusion fitting perhaps in a season that has been impossible to predict. The two protagonists endured an ill-tempered race and both left with differing views, Hamilton accusing his rival of being dangerous and Verstappen aggrieved. What it made clear is that neither will leave anything on the table next week in Abu Dhabi.
The investigations and debriefs will go on long into the night after this staccato affair interrupted by red flags, safety cars and the two leaders clashing repeatedly on track but ultimately and crucially for his title hopes it was an exhausted Hamilton who came out on top.
Hamilton had gone into the race trailing Verstappen by eight points, they are now level. The lead has changed hands five times during this enthralling season, which has ebbed and flowed between them but of course Hamilton has experience in tense showdowns, pipped to his first title in the last race of 2007 and then sealing it in a nail-biting showdown in Brazil a year later.
Verstappen is in his first title fight but has shown no indication of being intimidated, instead eagerly grasping his chance to finally compete and he still has it all to play for despite his clear disappointment at the result at the Jeddah circuit.
Hamilton admitted how hard the race been. “I’ve been racing a long time and that was incredibly tough,” he said. “I tried to be as sensible and tough as I could be and with all my experience just keeping the car on the track and staying clean. It was difficult. We had all sorts of things thrown at us.”
Hamilton’s race engineer Peter Bonnington credited his man with how he had handled it, noting: “It was the cool head that won out”. It was a necessary skill beyond that of wrestling with this tricky, high speed circuit, given the incidents that defined the race as it swung between the two rivals.
Hamilton held his lead from pole but an early red flag due to a crash left Verstappen out front when Red Bull had opted not to pit under a safety car. Thus far at least it was fairly straightforward.
When racing resumed from a standing start Hamilton, off like a bullet, had the lead into turn one but Verstappen went wide and cut the corner of two to emerge in front. Esteban Ocon took advantage to sneak into second only for the race to be stopped again immediately after several cars crashed in the midfield.
With the race stopped, the FIA race director, Michael Masi, offered Red Bull the chance for Verstappen to be dropped to third behind Hamilton because of the incident, rather than involving the stewards. In unprecedented scenes of negotiations with Masi, Red Bull accepted the offer, conceding Verstappen had to give up the place, with the order now Ocon, Hamilton.
Verstappen launched brilliantly at the restart, dove up the inside to take the lead, while Hamilton swiftly passed Ocon a lap later to move to second.
The front two immediately pulled away with Hamilton sticking to Verstappen’s tail, ferociously quick as they matched one another’s times. Repeated periods of the virtual safety car ensued to deal with debris littering the track and when racing began again on lap 37, Hamilton attempted to pass and was marginally ahead through turn one as both went off but Verstappen held the lead, lighting the touchpaper for the flashpoint.
Verstappen was told by his team to give the place back to Hamilton but when Verstappen slowed apparently looking to do so, Hamilton hit the rear of the Red Bull, damaging his front wing. Mercedes said they were unaware Verstappen was going to slow and the team had not informed Hamilton, who did not know what Verstappen was doing. Hamilton was furious, accusing Verstappen of brake-testing him. Both drivers are under investigation by the stewards for the incident and penalties may yet be applied.
Verstappen then did let Hamilton through but immediately shot back up to retake the lead but in doing so went off the track. He was then given a five-second penalty for leaving the track and gaining an advantage and a lap later Verstappen once more let his rival through, concerned he had not done so sufficiently on the previous lap. After all the chaos, Hamilton finally led and Verstappen’s tyres were wearing, unable to catch the leader who went on to secure a remarkable victory.
It was all too much for Verstappen who left the podium ceremony immediately the anthems concluded. “This sport is more about penalties than racing and for me this is not Formula One,” he said “A lot of things happened, which I don’t fully agree with.”
Both teams had diverging viewpoints on the incidents but both must now look forward. After 21 highly competitive races, the last a febrile, unpredictable drama, the season will be decided in a one-off shootout where both drivers have without doubt earned their place but just when the respect between them appears at its lowest ebb. – Guardian
Covid testing rules for all arrivals into State come into force
New Covid testing rules for travellers arriving into the State have come into force today.
At the start of the week the Government announced that all incoming travellers except those travelling from Northern Ireland will have to present a negative test result in order to enter the country irrespective of the vaccination status.
The move came in response to concerns about the spread of the Omicron variant of Covid-19.
The test requirements were due to be introduced from midnight on Thursday. However the system was postponed at the last minute to midnight on Sunday in order to allow airlines prepare for checks.
For those with proof of vaccination they can show a negative professionally administered antigen test carried out no more than 48 hours before arrrival or a PCR test taken within 72 hours before arrival. Those who are unvaccinated must show a negative PCR test result.
Ryanair’s Michael O’Leary had described the move as “nonsense” and “gobbledygook”.
Meanwhile more than 150 passengers have departed Morocco for Ireland on a repatriation flight organised by the Government.
The 156 passengers on the flight from Marrakech to Dublin included Irish citizens as well as citizens of several other EU countries and the UK.
The journey was organised after flights to and from Morocco were suspended earlier this week until at least December 13th, amid fears over the spread of the new Omicron Covid-19 variant.
The repatriation flight on Saturday was operated on behalf of the Government by Ryanair.
Responding to news of the flight’s departure, Minister for Foreign Affairs Simon Coveney hailed the efforts of the Irish Embassy in Rabat in the operation, tweeting: “Well done and thank you!”.
On Saturday the number of Covid patients in hospital has fallen to 487, the lowest level in almost four weeks, the latest official figures show. The number of Covid patients in hospital fell by 41 between Friday and Saturday. There were 5,622 further cases of Covid-19 reported on Saturday.
Tweeting about the latest hospital figures on Saturday, Tánaiste Leo Varadkar said the “plan is working – 3rd doses, masks, test & isolate, physical distancing. Thank you for what you are doing. Please don’t lose heart. Let’s all have a safe Christmas.”
The figures come as the Government on Friday announced its most wide-ranging introduction of new restrictions this year after “stark” warnings from the National Public Health Emergency Team (Nphet) to take immediate action in the face of the threat from the Omicron variant.
From Tuesday until at least January 9th, indoor hospitality will be limited to parties of up to six adults per table, while nightclubs will be closed and indoor events limited to half a venue’s capacity. Advice has been issued that households should not host more than three other households in their home, while the use of the vaccine pass is to be extended to gyms and hotel bars and restaurants.
Trinity College immunologist Prof Luke O’Neill said the main reason for the new restrictions was the new Omicron variant, and he thought they were needed as the “next three to four weeks are going to be tough”. Speaking to Brendan O’Connor on RTÉ radio, he said it was “strange” that restrictions were being introduced when things are stabilising, with the lowest hospital numbers since November 6th.
Prof O’Neill said he was “hopeful” at news that the Omicron variant may have a piece of the common cold virus in it which could make it more like the common cold.
Divock Origi delivers late delight as Liverpool see off Wolves
Wolves 0 Liverpool 1
Divock Origi’s last-gasp strike sent Liverpool top of the Premier League with a dramatic 1-0 win at Wolves.
The substitute fired in from close range in stoppage time just as it looked like the Reds would fail to score for the first time in eight months.
He spared Diogo Jota’s blushes after the forward hit Conor Coady on the line following Jose Sa’s second-half mistake.
Chelsea’s 3-2 defeat at West Ham gave the Reds a path to the summit and they went top thanks to Origi’s late show. Resilient Wolves were left with nothing despite another battling display and sit eighth.
Liverpool had blown away the majority of their rivals this season, having scored four in each of their last three Premier League games before arriving at Molineux.
They had, simply, been too good but found Wolves at their resolute best until the death.
Only Chelsea and Manchester City have conceded fewer goals than Bruno Lage’s side prior to the game and there was strong resistance to Liverpool’s threat.
The visitors failed to find any early rhythm, thanks largely to the hosts’ determination. Aside from Leander Dendoncker slicing a clearance from Jota’s header the Reds made few first-half inroads.
Three straight clean sheets had given Wolves’ defence renewed confidence and they continued to keep it tight as Liverpool slowly began to turn the screw.
Trent Alexander-Arnold volleyed over after 28 minutes and then turned provider for Jota, who headed his far post cross wide.
Liverpool had control but only managed to open their hosts up once and, even then, Romain Saiss’s presence ensured Mohamed Salah just failed to make contact with Andrew Robertson’s low centre.
Yet, they were still searching for a goal. Having scored in every Premier League game since a 1-0 defeat to Fulham in March more was expected after the break.
Salah’s knockdown caused some penalty box pinball which saw Thiago Alcantara twice denied but Jürgen Klopp’s men lacked the fluidity and precision to break Wolves down.
They needed a mistake from Sa to create their best opening on the hour and even then Jota missed it.
The goalkeeper raced out to the left after Jordan Henderson’s searching pass for Jota but collided with Saiss to give the forward a clear run to goal.
He advanced but from just six yards belted the ball at the covering Coady on the line.
Alexander-Arnold drove over as Liverpool’s frustrations grew and Sa denied Sadio Mane late on.
But Origi had the final say deep into added time when he collected Salah’s pass, turned and fired in from four yards.
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