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Brazil: Recreational harassment | Opinion

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A march to defend women's rights in São Paulo in 2019.
A march to defend women’s rights in São Paulo in 2019.Cris Faga

The video traveled back and forth between Brazil and Egypt in less than 24 hours. The images were posted by a white Brazilian male, camera in hand as he filmed a young Egyptian woman selling papyrus products. While the woman described the merchandise to him, the man chatted away to her in Portuguese. The woman was smiling, as polite people do during intercultural, linguistic exchanges when they want the person who is attempting to communicate with them to feel at ease. She didn’t know it, but the anonymous Brazilian was sexually harassing her. Instead of asking questions about the papyrus, he was making obscene remarks about sex and the male organ: “You all like it nice and hard, right?” “Long is nice too, right?” he says on the recording, while he and another Brazilian man laugh. A case of recreational harassment.

Why “recreational harassment” and not just harassment? With recreational harassment, it is harder to identify the violence perpetrated against the victim, because when someone watches or shares the images, their amusement actually makes them complicit with the violence. Recreational harassment occurs when a woman is harassed as part of a project of domination implemented through other men’s laughter. It is not liberating laughter (ridendo castigat mores, a Latin phrase meaning that one corrects customs by laughing at them), but laughter grounded in stereotypes and regimes of domination. Here is how José Adilson Moreira has defined “recreational racism”: cultural politics grounded in discriminatory practices against racial minorities in the guise of oppressive laughter, which naturalize racial hostility and which the law rarely recognizes as illegal. Engaging in dialogue with Moreira, Carla Akotirene has written about the inseparability of recreational racism and sexism in situations where meme humor is a weapon used to ridicule Black women for various purposes, sometimes to stereotype manifestations of the bodily disempowerment wrought by poverty, like missing teeth, or at other times in an effort to control the non-submissive voices of Black female intellectuals by labeling them “divas” or “angry Black women.” The anonymous Egyptian victim was someone who fit an Islamophobic stereotype: a young Muslim woman wearing a veil.

The Egyptian police identified the physician, who is now being investigated for the crime of sexual harassment

The episode might be interpreted as an isolated incident involving a Latin American macho abroad. But it is not isolated. In 2014, this same Brazilian released another video of himself, this time harassing an Australian woman by asking her to repeat sexual phrases in Portuguese. There is a pattern to this harassment; people who feel superior employ mockery as a power tactic to humiliate people marked by gender or sexuality, race or religion. Hidden behind the obscene comments on the recent video are cultural and gender stereotypes about Egyptian women. The arrogance of this mockery draws from a sense of ethnic and gender superiority on the part of a white patriarchy that, at home or abroad, acts with the certainty that its naturalized privileges guarantee impunity. The Brazilian apparently found nothing embarrassing about what he had done, so he posted the images to his Instagram account, which has nearly one million followers.

This anonymous man roaming the streets of Luxor is a well-known figure in Brazil. He is a medical doctor, a coach specialized in fitness techniques, and a supporter of President Bolsonaro who, more than a year into the pandemic, continues using jargon with a pseudo-scientific veneer to defend treatments of no proven scientific value, like hydroxychloroquine. Yet it would be better to describe him beyond his nationality, as a representative-without-borders of the racist patriarchy that harasses women. When confronted about the scene, the man set his Instagram account to private and justified his actions by saying: “I’m like that. I’m a real jokester.” Brazilian feminists copied the video, translated it, and sent it to women’s groups in Egypt, like the online platform Speak Up, a “feminist initiative to support victims of violence.” This was followed by an immediate online mobilization, with hashtags circulating in both countries and in three languages, Arabic, English, and Portuguese: “expel the Brazilian harasser from Egypt,” “investigate the Brazilian harasser” and “we don’t want harassers in our country.”

The Egyptian police identified the physician, who is now being investigated for the crime of sexual harassment; punishment ranges from a monetary fine to between six months and three years in prison. It was feminists who identified the incident as an instance of sexual harassment – not Instagram, which allowed the images to be posted to the doctor’s account. Only after many young Brazilian and Egyptian feminists reacted and expressed their solidarity did the social media platform determine that the video breached its Community Guidelines, which prohibit “hate speech, bullying and abuse.” The doctor’s apology to the victim tells us what women are up against: “Since I saw what a smiley person you are and how you were joking along with us, I just ended up joking around.” No, victims don’t laugh; recreational mockery is only for the aggressor.

Debora Diniz is a Brazilian anthropologist and researcher at Brown University.

Giselle Carino is an Argentine political scientist and IPPF/WHR director.



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Texas Deputy AG Apologizes for Slamming Simone Biles as ‘National Embarrassment’

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US gymnast Simone Biles received immense support from Americans this week after announcing she would not be competing in the Team USA final, nor the women’s individual all-around gymnastics final, due to personal mental health concerns. At the same time, the 24-year-old has received backlash from many individuals who viewed her pull-out as weak.

Aaron Reitz, deputy attorney general for Texas, took to Twitter on Wednesday evening to issue an apology to Biles, and recant a statement in which he panned the record-setting US gymnast as a “national embarrassment.” 

“In a moment of frustration and disappointment, I opined on subjects for which I am not adequately versed. That was an error. I can’t imagine what Simone Biles has gone through,” Reitz claimed. “Simone Biles is a true patriot and one of the greatest gymnasts of our time.”

“I apologize to her, and wish her well,” the deputy AG concluded, emphasizing that his “personal social media comments” do not represent the views of Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton, nor the Office of the Attorney General. 

Reitz’s since-deleted tweet against Biles, who was born in Texas and still resides in the Lone Star State, quoted another post that applauded the 1996 Olympic performance of Team USA gymnast Kerri Strug. Strug, one of the US’ “Magnificent Seven,” severely injured her ankle during the first half of the vault competition, but refused to bow out of the event and ultimately led her team to win the US’ first gold medal in women’s gymnastics. 

“Contrast this with our selfish, childish national embarrassment, Simone Biles,” Reitz said in his quote tweet. 

The deputy AG’s attempt at using Strug’s story to chastise Biles fell flat, as the two-time Olympian threw her support behind the 24-year-old on Tuesday. 

Furthermore, it is worth noting that Biles is no stranger to performing with adversity. When the US Women’s Gymnastics team took home gold at the 2018 World Championships in Qatar, Biles dominated in nearly every competition, despite intense stomach pains from what was later confirmed to be a kidney stone. 

Despite her pull-outs this year, Biles has continued to root for her fellow Team USA gymnasts. She also expressed in a Wednesday social media post that “the outpouring [of] love & support I’ve received has made me realize I’m more than my accomplishments and gymnastics which I never truly believed before.”



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Aid cuts make a mockery of UK pledges on girls’ education | Zoe Williams

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With all the fanfare Covid would allow, the global education summit opened in London this week. Ahead of the meeting, the minister for European neighbourhood and the Americas was on rousing form. “Educating girls is a gamechanger,” Wendy Morton said, going on to describe what a plan would look like to do just that.

The UK, co-hosting the summit with Kenya’s president, Uhuru Kenyatta, plans to raise funds for the Global Partnership for Education, from governments and donors. The UK government has promised £430m over the next five years.

There followed a number of reasons why the issue is so important, all of them absolutely sound: on any given indicator, from GDP to infant health and beyond, a nation stands or falls by how well, for how long, and how inclusively it educates its girls.

The issue has never been more important than during this pandemic, which in many countries is hitting a peak having already affected girls disproportionately.

These are all the right words, even in the right order, yet they land completely at odds with the government’s behaviour.

Lis Wallace, head of advocacy at the One campaign, is most immediately concerned with these pledges being fully funded. There are two core targets: one is to increase girls’ access to education, the other is to boost the key milestone for all children – that they’re able to read and understand a simple story by the age of 10.

The past 18 months have been devastating for education, particularly in countries where it’s harder to access to online learning. About 1.6 billion children are out of school across the world. There’s a target to raise $5bn (£3.6bn), “which is a drop in the ocean of what is required to meet the global learning crisis”, Wallace says. It looks as though this summit will raise no more than $4bn, which is nothing less than a “failure of statecraft”, as Wallace explains: “It’s challenging when the host government is stepping back and making aid cuts for it then to ask other countries to step up.”

This is a depressing echo of the G7’s failure earlier this year; commitments to share vaccine doses with low-income countries came too little, too late, with devastating results, and it’s hard to avoid the question of whether that outcome would have been different if the host nation had role modelled some generosity.

Furthermore, there’s some confused causality in the minister’s assertion that staying in school protects girls from “forced child marriage, gender-based violence and early pregnancy”. The exact inverse is true: it is largely teenage pregnancy that forces girls out of school in the first place, and to try to use education in lieu of sexual health and reproductive provision is illogical.

Esi Asare Prah, who is a youth and advocacy officer in Ghana for MSI Reproductive Choices, describes a situation in which 5,000 to 7,000 girls drop out of school each year after becoming pregnant – last year, 2,000 of them were between 10 and 14. Across sub-Saharan Africa, MSI estimates that up to 4 million girls drop out or are excluded from school every year due to pregnancy.

“These girls are most likely to be on the street, doing menial jobs; their children will not make it into higher education. It creates a cycle of poverty and a cycle of slums. For me, the foundation of it is that you can’t seek to invest in education for girls in sub-Saharan Africa and cut down funding for sexual and reproductive health. If you treat development issues as isolated, you will have the same issues of 50 years ago chasing you into the future.”

Here, the recent cuts to the aid budget make a mockery of these pledges on education: UK funding to the UN Population Fund recently went down by 85%.

There is inspiration to take from this summit, nevertheless; President Kenyatta has been leading the charge not only on education but also on the climate crisis, and there is a solidarity and sense of purpose between poorer nations that may yet inspire greater generosity from donors. Whatever it achieves, though, it will be despite its UK host not because of them.

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[Ticker] US backs WHO plan for further Covid-origin investigation

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US secretary of state Antony Blinken affirmed his country’s support to conduct additional investigations into the origins of the Covid-19 after meeting with the head of the World Health Organization, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, on Wednesday, Reuters reported. “He stressed the need for the next phase to be timely, evidence-based, transparent, expert-led, and free from interference,” a US state department spokesperson said in a statement.

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